NEAR EARTH ASTEROIDS (NEAs)

A CHRONOLOGY OF MILESTONES 1800 - 2200

 

Courtesy of Karel A. van der Hucht

version 104.0 – 01 June 2020

The NEO Chronology is regularly updated  (no claim on completeness). For the meaning of the technical terms used, see here

 

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NEAR EARTH OBJECTS – MILE STONES

Introduction

 

An asteroid is coined a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) when its trajectory brings it within 1.3 AU from the Sun. A NEA is said to be a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) when its orbit comes to within 0.05 AU (= 19.5 LD = 7.5 million km) of the Earth's orbit and has a measured absolute magnitude H < 22 mag (i.e., an estimated diameter D > 140 m).

 

As of 31 May 2020, 22932 NEAs are registered by NASA JPL CNEOS, including

902 NEAs with D > 1 km (i.e., 96 % of an estimated population of 942), and

9144 NEAs with D > 140 m (i.e., 36 % of an estimated population of ~ 25,000).

Of the km-size NEAs, 157 are PHAs.

 

Amor, Apollo, Aten and Atira NEAs

 

Definitions

Amor              Earth approaching asteroid with orbit exterior to Earth's orbit, but interior to the orbit of Mars. Amor was discovered 12 March 1932.

Apollo             Earth orbit crossing asteroid with semi-major axis larger than that of

Earth. Apollo was discovered 24 April 1932.

Aten                Earth orbit crossing asteroid with semi-major axis smaller than that of

Earth. Aten was discovered 7 January 1976.

Atira               Earth approaching asteroid with orbit interior to Earth's orbit. Atira was discovered 11 February 2003.

 

Occurrence

As of 31 May 2020, the 22932 registered NEAs include 12747 (56 %) Apollos, 8429 (37 %) Amors, 1734 (7.6 %) Atens, and 22 (0.1 %) Atiras.

 

The NEA chronology lists

 

(a) data of known NEAs with past nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD;

(b) data of known NEAs with future nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 10.00 LD

      and minimum close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD;

(c) data of known PHA's with H ≤ 22 mag and nominal Earth close approach distances

     d ≤ 5.00 LD;

(d) scientific literature, conferences and other milestones of NEO research.

(e) interstellar minor planets

The NEA Chronology is updated monthly and can be downloaded as pdf file.

 

Information on categories (a) and (b) is quoted from both the ESA NEO Coordination Centre Close Approach Tables and the NASA JPL CNEOS Close Approach Tables for the period 1900  – 2200 A.D., as of 31 May 2020.

By listing in chronological order this broad selection of milestones of NEO research, a global impression is offered of what has been done and has happened, and what is being done and will happen in those fields, as far as presently known.

 

As of 1 June 2020, the NEA Chronology lists 5089 entries of known past events registered since AD 1800, including 611 observed (the first one in 1991) and calculated close approaches of NEAs ranging in size from 1 to 325 m (including 7 PHAs, one in the km class, one appearing twice) with nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD (82 in 2019, to date 44 in 2020), 32 of which with d ≤ 0.10 LD. Moreover, seven impacts have been recorded: on 30 June 1908 (Tunguska), 6 October 2008 (2008 TC3, Sudan), 15 February 2013 (Chelyabinsk), 2 January 2014 (2014 AA, off the coast of West Africa), 2 June 2018 (2018 LA, Botswana), 18 December 2018 (Bering Sea), and on 22 June 2019 (2019 MO, Caribbean Sea).

 

First observed NEA flyby at d < 1 LD : 18 January 1991, 1991 BA (D ≈ 8 m).  

First observed NEA flyby at d < 0.1 LD : 31 March 2004, 2004 FU162 (D ≈ 8 m).

Closest observed NEA flyby, at d ≈ 1.86 REarth : 4 Feb 2011, 2011 CQ1 (D 2 m).

 

As of 1 June 2020, the NEA Chronology lists 578 entries of known future events announced and predicted up to AD 2200, of which 278 predicted close approaches of NEAs with nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 10.00 LD and minimum close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD (i.e., about one per year), including 51 predicted close approaches of NEAs with nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD (10 of those are PHAs, one in the km class), two of which with d ≤ 0.10 LD (including PHA Apophis).

 

Colour coding

red bold italics           spacecraft

green bold                  asteroid, meteorite, impact site

blue bold                    NEA related institute, observatory, organization, program

blue bold italics         NEA related conference, workshop, seminar, meeting

purple bold                Potentially Hazardous Asteroid

 

Sources

https://minorplanetcenter.net/

https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/

https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/totals.html

https://www.nasa.gov/planetarydefense/overview 

http://neo.ssa.esa.int/neo-home  

http://neo.ssa.esa.int/close-approaches   

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1862_Apollo  

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1221_Amor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2062_Aten

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atira_asteroid

A.W. Harris, G. D’Abramo, 2015, Icarus, 257, 302, "The population of near-Earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..257..302H

A.W. Harris, 2017, AAS DPS meeting #49, id.#100.01, "The population of Near-Earth Asteroids revisited."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DPS....4910001H 

A.W. Harris, More Data!, 2017, Phys.Org News, 19 October 2017, "Number of undiscovered near-Earth asteroids revised downward."

See: https://phys.org/news/2017-10-undiscovered-near-earth-asteroids-downward.html

A.W. Harris, More Data!, 2019, in: 6th IAA Planetary Defense Conference, "NEA population and current survey status." See:

https://iaaweb.org/iaa/Scientific%20Activity/conf/pdc2019/IAA-PDC-19-02-07-pr.pdf

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Csoa5tvIso&feature=youtu.be

D.K. Yeomans, 2013, "Near-Earth Objects ---Finding the before they find us" (Princeton and Oxford : Princeton University Press)

 

 

* * *

 

 

NEA CHRONOLOGY 1800 - 2200

 

1801, Jan 1

First and largest asteroid discovered, 1 Ceres (H = 3.34 mag, D 975 km, main-belt asteroid), by Giuseppe Piazzi (1746 – 1826, Italy) at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo. Asteroid Cerere Ferdinandea was named in honour of King Ferdinand IV of Sicily, and later became known simply as Ceres. Carl Gauss developed the math to determine an accurate orbit for Ceres and published his results in November 1801. Given the definition of planets and dwarfplanets accepted by the IAU XXVI General Assembly in 2006, Ceres is considered a dwarf planet rather than an asteroid.

See: Ceres - JPL , 1 Ceres - SSA

https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=Ceres

Ref:

- G. Piazzi, 1802, Della scoperta del nuovo planeta Cerere Ferdinandea (Palermo: Nella Stamperia Reale).

See: https://archive.org/details/DellaScopertaDelNuovoPianetaCerereFerdinandea

See also:

http://www.space.com/12969-giant-asteroid-ceres-telescopes-skywatching.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceres_(dwarf_planet)

More recently:

Since 6 March 2015, NASA spacecraft Dawn is in orbit around Ceres. See:

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4503

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4540

 

1803, 26 Apr

L'Aigle Meteorite Fall. In the early afternoon of 26 April 1803 a meteorite shower of more than 3000 fragments fell upon the town of L'Aigle (Normandy, France).

Ref:

- M. Gounelle, 2003, in 66th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting (2003), Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 38, Supplement, abstract no.5251, "The meteorite fall at l’Aigle on April 26th 1803 and the Biot report."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003M%26PSA..38.5251G

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L'Aigle_(meteorite)

 

1807, Dec 14

Weston Meteorite. At 6:30 hr on the morning of 14 December 1807, a blazing fireball about two-thirds the size of the Moon was seen traveling southwards by early risers in Vermont and Massachusetts (USA). Three loud explosions were heard over the town of Weston in Fairfield County, Connecticut. Stone fragments fell in at least 6 places.

See:

http://peabody.yale.edu/collections/meteorites-and-planetary-science/weston-meteorite  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weston_meteorite

 

1840, Jun 12

Uden Meteorite (Netherlands). A 0.6 kg meteorite was found. See:

http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/DL/publications/PU00015500.pdf  http://www.sterrenkunde.nl/index/encyclopedie/meteoren.html

 

1843, Jun 2

Blauwkapel Meteorite (Netherlands). Two pieces were found, of 2.7 and 7 kg. See: http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/DL/publications/PU00015500.pdf  http://www.sterrenkunde.nl/index/encyclopedie/meteoren.html

 

1859, Nov 15

New York City Fireball and Airburst (USA).

See:

http://www.meteoritehistory.info/AJS/S2VIEWS/V30P186.HTM  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1860, Jul 20

The Meteor Procession of 20 July 1860, visible from the Great Lakes to New York State (USA), continuing out over the Atlantic Ocean.

Ref:

- Walt Whitman, 1859-1860, in Leaves of Grass, "Year of Meteors.";

- A.G. Pope, 5-1-2010, Astronomical dating of Edvard Munch's summer sky paintings, University Honors Program, Texas State University;

- R. Sinnott, 2010, Sky & Telescope, 7 June 2010, "Walt Whitman's "Meteor-Procession"."

See: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/95765719.html

- D.W. Olson, R.L Doescher, M.S. Olson, A.G. Pope,  2010,  Sky & Telescope, 120, No.1, July 2010, p. 28, "Walt Whitman's "Year of Meteors"."

See: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/95765719.html  

http://philosophyofscienceportal.blogspot.com/2010/06/walt-whitman-wrote-about-strange-huge.html  http://www.txstate.edu/news/news_releases/news_archive/2010/06/YearOfMeteors060110.html  

http://www.newscientist.com/gallery/whitman-mystery-solved/3  http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/culturelab/2010/06/the-forensic-astronomer-donald-olson.html  http://cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/06/02/4448882-150-year-old-meteor-mystery-solved  

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap100722.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth-grazing_fireball

 

1864, May 14

Orgueil Meteorite rain over Orgueil (Southern France). Some 20 stones fell over an area of several square kilometers, with a total weight of 14 kg.

Ref:

- M. Gounelle, P. Spurný, P.A. Bland, 2006, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41, 135, "The orbit and atmospheric trajectory of the Orgueil meteorite from historical records."

See: http://www.springerlink.com/content/m470723364612j6x/

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orgueil_(meteorite)

 

1868, July 11

Main-belt asteroid 100 Hekate (H = 7.66 mag, D ≈ 123 km) discovered by James C. Watson (1838 – 1880) at Ann Arbor (MI, USA). 100th numbered asteroid in the data base of the IAU Minor Planet Center, Cincinnati Observatory (Ohio, USA).

See: 100 Hekate - JPL , 100 Hekate - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_Hekate

 

1873, Oct 27

Diepenveen Meteorite Fall, Diepenveen (the Netherlands).

See: http://www.naturalis.nl/en/news/collectie-2/new-dutch-meteorite-fell-1873/

 

1890, May 2

Forest City Meteorite Fall, Forest City (Iowa, USA), 2 May 1890. Ref:

- H.H. Nininger, 1942, Popular Astronomy, 50, 111, "A celestial bomb."

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteorite_falls

 

1891, Dec 22

First photographic discovery of an asteroid, 323 Brucia (H = 9.53 mag, D ≈ 35.8 km), by Maximilian F.J.C. Wolf (1863 – 1932) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Heidelberg, Germany).

See: Brucia - JPL  , Brucia - SSA  

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/323_Brucia

 

1893

G.K. Gilbert (1893) suggested impacts as most likely process for forming lunar craters.

Ref:

- G.K. Gilbert, 1893, Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, 12, 241, "The Moon’s face: a study of the origin of its features."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1893QB591.G46......

 

1896, Feb 2

Great Madrid Meteor Event.

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1896PASP....8...86C  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelyabinsk_meteor

 

1898, Aug 13

First discovery of a NEA: asteroid 433 Eros (1898 DQ, H = 10.3 mag, D 34.4 × 11.2 × 11.2 km, orbital P = 1.76 yr, Amor asteroid), by Carl Gustav Witt (1866 – 1948) at the Urania Sternwarte Berlin (Germany), and independently by Auguste Charlois (1864 – 1910) at the Observatoire de Nice (France). Second-largest NEA known. Its perihelion distance of 1.133 AU brings it with 0.15 AU of the orbit of the Earth.

See: 1898 DQ - JPL , 433 Eros - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/433_Eros

Ref:

- P. Michel, P. Farinella, Ch. Froeschlé, 1996, Nature, 380, 689, "The orbital evolution of the asteroid Eros and implications for collision with the Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Natur.380..689M  

See also: http://www.oaa.gr.jp/~oaacs/mp/BriefHistoryofMPCbyConradBardwell.pdf  

See also: 23 Jan 1975, 31 Jan 2012.

 

1899, Mar 12

Helsinki Fireball and Airburst (Finland).

See:

http://www.somerikko.net/collection/meteorites.php?id=374  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1900, Jan 1

1 NEA known.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1900, Jan 4

Aten NEA 509352 (2007 AG, H = 20.2 mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.75 LD.

See: 2007 AG - JPL , 2007 AG - SSA

See also: 4 Jan 1919.

 

1900, Jan 29

Apollo NEA 4660 Nereus (1982 DB, H = 18.3 mag, D ≈ 510 x 330 240 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal distance of 8.09 LD. Minimum distance 8.08 LD.

See: 1982 DB - JPL , 4660 Nereus - SSA

https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=4660 Nereus

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4660_Nereus

Ref:

- M. Brozovic, S.J. Ostro, L.A.M. Benner, et al., 2009, Icarus, 201, 153, "Radar observations and a physical model of asteroid 4660 Nereus, a prime space mission target."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Icar..201..153B  

- K. Kitazato, S. Abe, M. Ishiguro, et al., October 2012, AAS DPS meeting #44, #210.20, "Measuring the YORP effect of asteroid 4660 Nereus." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DPS....4421020K

See also: 22 Jan 2002, 11 Dec 2021, 14 Feb 2060, 4 Feb 2071, 23 Dec 2112, 4 Feb 2166.

 

1900, May 10

Aten NEA 326290 Akhenaten (1998 HE3, H = 22.0 mag, D ≈ 100 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.01 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.01 LD.

See: 1998 HE3- JPL , 1998 HE3- SSA

 

1900, Jul 24

Apollo NEA 2007 HE15 (H = 20.0 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.98 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.96 LD.

See: 2007 HE15 - JPL , 2007 HE15 - SSA

 

1901, Jun 7

Aten NEA 2014 HQ124 (H = 19.0 mag, D ≈ 370 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.95 LD. Minimum miss distance 5.90 LD.

See: 2014 HQ124 - JPL , 2014 HQ124 - SSA

See also:

https://www.google.nl/#q=asteroid+2014+hq124

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_HQ124

See also: 7 Jun 1952, 8 Jun 2014, 8 Jun 2065.

 

1901, Aug 14

Apollo NEA 2011 DS (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 15 m), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.94 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.75 LD.

See: 2011 DS - JPL , 2011 DS - SSA

See also: 18 Feb 1966, 18 Feb 2050.

 

1902, May 22

Apollo NEA 2018 KS (H = 28.0 mag, D ≈ 9 m), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.84 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.96 LD.

See: 2018 KS - JPL , 2018 KS - SSA

 

1902, Nov 19

Aten NEA 2019 OR1 (H = 21.1 mag, D ≈ 220 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.80 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.40 LD.

See: 2019 OR1 - JPL , 2019 OR1 - SSA

See also: 20 Nov 2085 , 21 Nov 2178.

 

1903, Jan 13

Apollo NEA 2010 WZ8 (H = 20.9 mag, D ≈ 230 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.51 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.51 LD.

See: 2010 WZ8 - JPL , 2010 WZ8 - SSA

See also: 13 Jan 2047.

 

1903, Feb 18

Aten NEA 208023 (1999 AQ10, H = 20.6 mag, D ≈ 280 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.29 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.28 LD.

See: 1999 AQ10 - JPL , 1999 AQ10 - SSA

See also: 18 Feb 2009.

 

1903, Apr 24

Apollo NEA 2007 VG (H = 21.4 mag, D ≈ 190 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.14 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.05 LD.

See: 2007 VG - JPL , 2007 VG - SSA

See also: 23 Apr 2062.

 

1904, Oct 29

Apollo NEA 260141 (2004 QT24 (H = 18.1 mag, D ≈ 900 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.30 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.29 LD.

See: 2004 QT24 - JPL , 2004 QT24 - SSA

 

1905

C. Flammarion, 1905, L'Astronomie, 19, 309, "Si quelque jour la vertu disparaissait de la Terre, il serait convenable de la retrouver au ciel."

See: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k96408857

 

1905, Jun 3

Apollo NEA 2007 LU19 (H = 21.5 mag, D ≈ 180 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.97 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.97 LD.

See: 2007 LU19 - JPL , 2007 LU19 - SSA

 

1905, Jun 27

Apollo NEA 25143 Itokawa (1998 SF36, H = 19.1 mag, D = 520 × 270 × 230 m, M = 3.6 × 1010 kg, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.50 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.50 LD.

See: 1998 SF36 - JPL , 25143 Itokawa - SSA

See also: 26 Jun 2004, 9 Apr 2167.

See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25143_Itokawa

 

1906, Jan 11

Apollo NEA 2018 YO2 (H = 30.0 mag, D ≈ 4 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 36.68 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.38. LD.       

See: 2018 YO2 - SSA , 2018 YO2 - JPL

See also: http://iawn.net/

See also: 28 Dec 2018.

 

1906, Feb 26

Apollo NEA 2014 PW59 (H = 21.0 mag, D ≈ 230 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.98 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.67 LD.

See: 2014 PW59 - JPL , 2014 PW59 - SSA

See also: 1 Mar 1947.

 

1906, Apr 11

Apollo NEA 2011 UH20 (H = 21.1 mag, D ≈ 220 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.70 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.54 LD.

See: 2011 UH20 - JPL , 2011 UH20 - SSA

See also: 11 Apr 1977.

 

1907, Apr 5

Apollo NEA 2005 TS15 (H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.44 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.43 LD.

See: 2005 TS15 - JPL , 2005 TS15 - SSA

 

1907, Apr 13

Aten NEA 99942 Apophis (2004 MN4, H = 19.7 mag, D = 310 ± 30  m, orbital P = 0.89 yr, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 11.27 LD. Minimum miss distance 8.12 LD.

See: 2004 MN4 - JPL , 99942 Apophis - SSA  

See also:

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Herschel_intercepts_asteroid_Apophis  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/99942_Apophis

See also: 14 Apr 1949, 14 Apr 1998, 13 Apr 2029, 23 Mar 2036, 7 Apr 2123.

 

1907, May 20

Apollo NEA 2001 SG286 (H = 20.8 mag, D ≈ 250 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.84 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.84 LD.

See: 2001 SG286 - JPL , 2001 SG286286 - SSA

 

1907, Dec 26

Aten NEA 2010 XC15 (H = 21.6 mag, D ≈ 170 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.74 LD.

See: 2010 XC15 - JPL , 2010 XC15 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_XC15  

See also: 27 Dec 1914, 27 Dec 1976, 27 Dec 2022, 28 Dec 2059, 26 Dec 2064, 26 Dec 2096.

 

1908, Feb 3

Aten NEA 2020 BQ12 (H = 24.5 mag, D ≈ 50 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.40 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.74 LD.

See: 2020 BQ12 – S2P , 2020 BQ12 – JPL

 

1908, Jun 30

Impact. Tunguska event, Siberia (Russia). According to Boslough & Crawford (2008), possibly an asteroid with D ≈ 30 – 50 m, exploding in an airburst with E ≈ 4 megaton TNT at an altitude of ~8.5 km, flattening ~2000 km2 of forest.

Ref:

- L.A. Kulik, 1938, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets, 3, 78, "The meteorite of June 30, 1908, in Central Siberia."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1938ASPL....3...78K  

- A. Ben-Menahem, September 1975, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 11, 1, "Source parameters of the Siberian explosion of June 30, 1908, from analysis and synthesis of seismic signals at four stations."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975PEPI...11....1B

- L'. Kresak, 1978, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 29, 129, "The Tunguska object – a fragment of Comet Encke?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978BAICz..29..129K  

- R.P. Turco, O.B. Toon, C. Park, et al., 1981, Science,  214, 19, "Tunguska meteor fall of 1908 – effects on stratospheric ozone." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Sci...214...19T

- Z. Sekanina, 1983, Astronomical Journal, 88, 1382, "The Tunguska event – no cometary signature in evidence." Erratum, 1984, Astronomical Journal, 89, 185.

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983AJ.....88.1382S  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984AJ.....89..185S  

- C.F. Chyba, 1993, Astronomy, 21, no.12, p.38, "Death from the sky."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Ast....21R..38C  

- C.F. Chyba, P.J. Thomas, K.J. Zahnle, 7 January 1993, Nature, 361, 40, "The 1908 Tunguska explosion: atmospheric disruption of a stony asteroid."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.361...40C  

- R.A. Gallant, 1994, Sky & Telescope, 87, no. 6, p. 38, "Journey to Tunguska."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994S%26T....87...38G

- P. Farinella, L. Foschini, Ch. Froeschlé, 2001, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 377, 1081, "Probable asteroidal origin of the Tunguska cosmic body."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001A%26A...377.1081F  

- K. Zahnle, 1996, Nature, 383, 674, "Tunguska: leaving no stone unburned." See: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v383/n6602/pdf/383674a0.pdf

- N.V. Vasilyev, Feb-Mar 1998, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 129, "The Tunguska Meteorite problem today."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46..129V

- G. Longo, 2007, in: P. Bobrowsky & H. Rickman (eds.), 2007, Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society (Berlin: Springer), p. 304, "The Tunguska event."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007caih.book.....B  

- D.I. Steel, 2008, Nature, 453, 1157, "Tunguska at 100."

See: http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080625/full/4531157a.html  

- M.B.E. Boslough, D.A. Crawford, 2008, Intern. J. of Impact Engineering, 35, 1441, "Low-altitude airbursts and the impact threat." See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0734743X08001784  http://www.sandia.gov/ldrd/images/Posters/Boslough_Poster.pdf  

- B. Napier, D. Asher, 2009, Astronomy & Geophysics, 50, 1.18, "The Tunguska impact event and beyond."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009A%26G....50a..18N   

- V. Rubtsov, 10 March 2013, e-print arXiv:1302.6273, "Reconstruction of the Tunguska Event of 1908: neither an asteroid, nor a comet core."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013arXiv1302.6273R  

See also:

http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=179  http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1818757,00.html http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap111002.html  

https://sputniknews.com/analysis/20080626112250936/

https://sputniknews.com/science/201701181049718416-tunguska-event-lake-cheko/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunguska_event

 

1908, Dec 16

Aten NEA 33342 (1998 WT24, H = 18.3 mag, D ≈ 415 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.54 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.54 LD.

See: 1998 WT24 - JPL , 1998 WT24 - SSA

See also:

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/1998wt24.html  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast14dec_1/   http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4800

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(33342)_1998_WT24

See also: 16 Dec 1956, 16 Dec 2001, 11 Dec 2015, 18 Dec 2099.

 

1909, Mar 6

Apollo NEA 474158 (1999 FA, H = 20.9 mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal distance of 4.20 LD. Minimum distance 4.16 LD.

See: 1999 FA - JPL , 1999 FA - SSA

See also: 6 Mar 1999, 6 Mar 2143, 7 Mar 2194.

 

1909, Aug 28

Aten NEA 2016 QA2 (H = 25.3 mag, D ≈ 30 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.83 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.27 LD.

See: 2016 QA2- JPL , 2016 QA2 - SSA

 

1910, Jan 1

1 NEA known.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1910

Minor planet astronomy became organized in a formal way at the Rechen-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem (Germany), director Fritz Cohn (1878 – 1940).

Ref:

- G. Stracke, 1935, Astronomische Nachrichten, 255, 189, "25 Jahre genäherte Bearbeitung der Bahnen der Kleinen Planeten im Astronomischen Rechen-Institut." Predecessor of the MPC.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1935AN....255..189S  

See also: 1947.

 

1910, May 9

Aten NEA 2007 JB21 (H = 25.8 mag, D ≈ 25 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.17 LD.                                                                                    [1910-01]

See: 2007 JB21 - JPL , 2007 JB21 - SSA

See also: 8 May 2054.

 

1911, May 5

Apollo NEA 2014 HO132 (H = 25.9 mag, D ≈ 24 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.56 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.56 LD.                                                                            [1911-01]    

See: 2014 HO132 - JPL , 2014 HO132 - SSA

 

1911, Jun 28

The Nakhla Meteorite fell to Earth on 28 June 1911 in the Nakhla region of Abu Hommos (Alexandria, Egypt). Many people witnessed its explosion in the upper atmosphere before the meteorite fell to Earth in an area of 4.5 km in diameter. About forty pieces were recovered. Recovered fragments ranged in weight from 20 to 1813 g.

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakhla_meteorite  

 

1911, Sep 8

Amor NEA 719 Albert (A911 TB = 2000 JW8, H = 15.8 mag, D ≈ 2400 m) passed Earth at 80 LD.

Discovered by Johann Palisa (1848 – 1925), discoverer of 122 asteroids at the Vienna Observatory (Austria). Lost (the last missing), but rediscovered 1 May 2000 by Jeffrey A. Larsen with the Spacewatch Telescope in Arizona (USA).

See:

2000 JW8 - JPL , 719 Albert - SSA

See also: http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/asteroid_found_000510.html  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/719_Albert  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Palisa

 

1912, Sep 11

Apollo NEA 2001 FA58  (H = 21.5  mag, D ≈ 180 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.60 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.60 LD.

See: 2001 FA58 - JPL , 2001 FA58 - SSA

 

1913, Feb 9

Earth-grazing fireball. A meteor procession observed from Canada to Bermuda and beyond.

Ref:

- J.A. O'Keefe, 1959, Journal Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 53, 59, "A probable natural satellite: the meteor procession of February 9, 1913."

As of 2008, four Earth-grazing fireballs have been scientifically observed: on 10 August 1972, 13 October 1990, 29 March 2006, and 7 August 2007. See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1959JRASC..53...59O  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth-grazing_fireball

 

1913, Apr 2

Apollo NEA 2020 GY1 (H = 26.6 mag, D ≈ 17 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.67 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.83 LD.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

See: 2020 GY1 – S2P , 2020 GY1 - JPL

See also: http://iawn.net/

See also: 5 Apr 2020, 5 Apr 2033.

 

1913, Sep 30

Apollo NEA 2012 GV17  (H = 20.1  mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.20 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.08 LD.

See: 2012 GV17 - JPL , 2012 GV17 - SSA

 

1914, Mar 10

Apollo NEA 2016 CY135 (H = 24.5 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.28 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.80 LD.

See: 2016 CY135 - JPL , 2016 CY135- SSA

See also: 11 Mar 2068.

 

1914, Oct 29

Apollo NEA 69230 Hermes (1937 UB, H = 17.5 mag, D ≈ 1100 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal distance of 9.74 LD. Minimum distance 9.70 LD.

Discovered by Karl W. Reinmuth (1892 – 1979) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Heidelberg, Germany); lost; recovered 15 October 2003. Arecibo radar observations on the same day revealed it to be a binary asteroid, with components of D ≈ 400 m, separated by 1200 m.

See: 1937 UB - JPL , 69230 Hermes - SSA

See also:

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/31oct_hermes.htm  http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Oct03/Arecibo.asteroid.deb.html  

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003IAUC.8227....2M  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/69230_Hermes

See also: 30 Oct 1937, 26 Apr 1942, 1 Nov 1954, 31 Oct 2086, 30 Apr 2123.

 

1914, Dec 18

Apollo NEA 2017 YE (H = 28.7 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.57 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.34 LD.

See: 2017 YE - JPL , 2017 YE - SSA

 

1914, Dec 27

Aten NEA 2010 XC15  (H = 21.6  mag, D ≈ 170 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.00 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.94 LD.

See: 2010 XC15 - JPL , 2010 XC15 - SSA

See also: 26 Dec 1907, 27 Dec 1976, 27 Dec 2022, 28 Dec 2059, 26 Dec 2064, 26 Dec 2096.

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_XC15

 

1914, Dec 31

Apollo NEA 152680 (1998 KJ9, H = 19.4 mag, D ≈ 500 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.60 LD.                                                     [1914-01]          

See: 1998 KJ9 - JPL , 152680 1998 KJ9 - SSA                                   

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(152680)_1998_KJ9

 

1915, May 15

Apollo NEA 2000 SL10 (H = 22.5  mag, D ≈ 110 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.32 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.86 LD.

See: 2000 SL10 - JPL , 2000 SL10 - SSA

See also: 14 May 2029.

 

1915, Aug 8

Aten NEA 2018 MD7 (H = 22.6 mag, D ≈ 110 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.29 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.23 LD.                                                                                    [1915-01]          

See: 2018 MD7 - JPL , 2018 MD7 - SSA                                  

 

1915, Sep 10

Apollo NEA 2010 RF12 (H = 28.1 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.22 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.08 LD. 

See: 2010 RF12 - JPL , 2010 RF12 - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_RF12

See also: 8 Sept 2010, 5 Sep 2095.

 

1916, Mar 12

Apollo NEA 216985 (2000 QK130, H = 21.3  mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.67 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.59 LD.

See: 2000 QK130 - JPL , 2000 QK130 - SSA

See also: 14 Mar 1968, 15 Mar 2036, 15 Mar 2089.

 

1917, Oct 4

Apollo NEA 2008 TC3 (H = 30.3 mag, D 4.1 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.80 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.06 LD. 

See: 2008 TC3 - JPL , 2008 TC3 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_TC3

See also: 11 Oct 1961, 2 Oct 1971, 27 Jan 1988, 6 Oct 2008.

 

1918, Feb 17

Aten NEA 367943 Duende (2012 DA14, H = 24.2 mag, D ≈ 40 × 20 m), discovered in 2012 by the Spanish Observatorio Astronomico de la Sagra, passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.13 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.13 LD.

See: 2012 DA14 - JPL , 367943 Duende - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/367943_Duende

See also: 19 Aug 2004, 16 Feb 2012, 15 Feb 2013, 15 Feb 2046, 15 Feb 2087.

 

1918, Mar 29

Aten NEA 2017 FY101 (H = 27.3 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.62 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.23 LD.                                                                                    [1918-01]                                                 

See: 2017 FY101 - JPL , 2017 FY101 - SSA                                            

 

1918, Sep 17

Apollo NEA 458732 (2011 MD5, H = 17.8 mag, D ≈ 1000 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.91 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.91 LD.                                    [1918-02]                                                 

See: 2011 MD5 - JPL , 2011 MD5 - SSA                                            

 

1919, Jan 4

Aten NEA 509352 (2007 AG, H = 20.2 mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.95 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.95 LD.                                                    

See: 2007 AG - JPL , 2007 AG - SSA

See also: 4 Jan 1900.

 

1919, Nov 26

Michigan - Indiana Fireball and Airburst (USA).

See:

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1919-11-27/ed-1/seq-1/  

http://neo.ssa.esa.int/newsletters  (5 November 2019)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1919, Dec 21

Amor NEA 2015 JQ1 (H = 20.5mag, D ≈ 280 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.94 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.28 LD.

See: 2015 JQ1 - JPL , 2015 JQ1 - SSA

 

1920, Jan 1

3 NEAs known, of which 0 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1920, Jan 17

Aten NEA 2009 BH2 (H = 22.3 mag, D 130 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.76 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.49 LD.

See: 2009 BH2 – SSA , 2009 BH2 – JPL

 

1920, Feb 10

Apollo NEA 2019 CB2 (H = 26.1 mag, D 21 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.90 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.80 LD.

See: 2019 CB2 - SSA , 2019 CB2 - JPL

 

1920, Jun 20

Apollo NEA 2017 MF (H = 26.4 mag, D 19 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.17 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.32 LD.

See: 2017 MF - SSA , 2017 MF - JPL

See also: 19 Jun 2017.

 

1920, Dec 13

Apollo NEA 2016 WJ1  (H = 21.4 mag, D ≈ 180 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.49 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.36 LD.

See: 2016 WJ1 - JPL , 2016 WJ1 - SSA

See also: 14 Dec 2061, 14 Dec 2097.

 

1920, Dec 20

Apollo NEA 2015 YQ1 (H = 28.2 mag, D 8 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.98 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.23 LD.

See: 2015 YQ1- SSA , 2015 YQ1 - JPL

 

1921

Alfred Wegener (1880 – 1930, Germany), 1921, Die Entstehung der Mondkrater (Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn). Translation: A. Wegener, 1975, The Moon, 4, 211, "The origin of lunar craters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975Moon...14..211W

 

1921, Oct 20

Apollo NEA 2340 Hathor (1976 UA, H = 20.5 mag, D ≈ 210 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.82 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.82 LD.                                                    

See: 1976 UA - JPL , 1976 UA - SSA

See also: 20 Oct 1976, 21 Oct.2069, 21 Oct 2086.

 

1922, Apr 30

Aten NEA 2020 JG (H = 25.9 mag, D ≈ 24 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.79 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.52 LD.                                                                                    

See: 2020 JG – S2P , 2020 JG – JPL

See: http://iawn.net/

See also: 30 Apr 2020.

 

1922, Jun 6

Apollo NEA 2017 LD (H = 27.5 mag, D 11 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.33 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.04 LD (= 2.70 REarth from the geocenter).                          [1922-01]                                                                                       

See: 2017 LD - SSA , 2017 LD - JPL

 

1923

Discovery of asteroid 1000 Piazzia (1923 NZ, (H = 10.6 mag, D = 27 km, Main-belt asteroid), by Karl W. Reinmuth (1892 – 1979) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl in Heidelberg (Germany). Upon his proposal, the IAU named the asteroid 1000 Piazzia, being the 1000th documented asteroid, in honour of Giuseppe Piazzi who discovered asteroid Ceres in 1801.

See:

1923 NZ - JPL , 1000 Piazzia - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1000_Piazzia

Ref:

- B. Asplind, 1926, Astronomische Nachrichten, 228, 89, "Benennung der Planeten 1000 – 1002."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1926AN....228...89A

 

1923, Nov 7

Apollo NEA 2018 VS6 (H = 27.0 mag, D 14 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 8.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.88 LD.

See: 2018 VS6 - SSA , 2018 VS6 - JPL

 

1924, Jun 5

Aten NEA 163348 (2002 NN4, H = 20.3 mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.49 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.47 LD.                                                     

See: 2002 NN4- JPL , 2002 NN4 - SSA

See also: 6 Jun 1965, 6 Jun 2070, 7 Jun 2130.

 

1924, Aug 22

Apollo NEA 513126 (1998 QP, H = 21.6 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.25 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.25 LD.                                                    

See: 1998 QP - JPL , 1998 QP - SSA

See also: 23 Aug 1998.

 

1924, Sep 27

Apollo NEA 2003 SR84 (H = 25.9 mag, D ≈ 29 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.68 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.10 LD.

See: 2003 SR84 - JPL , 2003 SR84 - SSA

 

1924, Oct 23

Discovery of Amor NEA 1036 Ganymed (A924 UB, H = 9.45, D = 36.5 km, orbital P = 4.34 yr), by W.H. Walter Baade at Hamburg-Bergedorf Observatory (Germany). Largest known NEA. In 1998, Arecibo radar images revealed a near spherical object.

See:

1924 TD - JPL , 1036 Ganymed - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1036_Ganymed

Ref:

- G. Hahn, P. Magnusson, A.W. Harris, et al., 1989, Icarus, 78, 363, "Physical studies of Apollo-Amor asteroids - UBVRI photometry of 1036 Ganymed and 1627 Ivar."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Icar...78..363H  

- P. Michel, R. Gonczi, P. Farinella, Ch. Froeschlé, 1999, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 347, 711, "Dynamical evolution of 1036 Ganymed, the largest near-Earth asteroid."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999A%26A...347..711M

- S.K. Fieber-Beyer, M.J. Gaffey, P.A. Abell, 2011, Icarus, 212, 149, "Mineralogical characterization of Near Earth Asteroid (1036) Ganymed.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Icar..212..149F  

 

1925, Mar 29

Aten NEA 2012 FT35 (H = 29.5 mag, D ≈ 4 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.10 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.09 LD.                                                                                    [1925-01]                                                                                  

See: 2012 FT35 - JPL , 2012 FT35 - SSA

See also: 25 Mar 1975.

 

1925, Aug 28

Ellemeet Meteorite. Whit aloud noise, so that horses and cows took fright, this meteorite fell down in a meadow near Ellemeet, on the island of Schouwen (the Netherlands) on 28 August 1925, about 11:30 hr a.m.

See: http://www.sterrenkunde.nl/index/encyclopedie/meteoren.html

Ref:

- A.A. Nijland, 1927, Hemel en Dampkring, 1927, 187, "Een merkwaardige meteoorsteen."

- W. Nieuwenkamp, 1927, Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, 1927, 724, "The Meteorite of Ellemeet (after that of Uden in 1840, and that of Blauwkapel in 1843, the third known in the Netherlands)."

See: http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/DL/publications/PU00015500.pdf

 

1925, Aug 30

Apollo NEA 163132 (2002 CU11, H = 18.7 mag, D ≈ 460 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.90 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.90 LD.                                    [1925-02]                                                  

See: 2002 CU11 - JPL , 163132 2002 CU11 - SSA                             

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(163132)_2002_CU11

See also 31 Aug 2080.                                                       

 

1926, Nov 5

Apollo NEA 2019 US10 (H = 20.6 mag, D ≈ 270 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.91 LD. Minimum miss distance 8.17 LD.     

See: 2019 US10 – SSA , 2019 US10 – JPL

 

1926, Nov 29

Apollo NEA 2015 XG55 (H = 27.9 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.92 LD.     

See: 2015 XG55 – SSA , 2015 XG55 – JPL

 

1927, Mar 14

Apollo NEA 275677 (2000 RS11, H = 19.0 mag, D ≈ 600 m, PHA) passed Earth aat a nominal miss distance of 3.15 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.15 LD.

See: 2000 RS11 - JPL , 2000 RS11 - SSA

See also: 13 Mar 1940.

 

1927, Apr 10

Apollo NEA 2002 JE9 (H = 21.2 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.67 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.19 LD.                                                              [1927-01]

See: 2002 JE9 - JPL , 2002 JE9 - SSA

See also: 11 Apr 1971.

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_JE9

 

1927, Dec 17

Apollo NEA 2016 XA2  (H = 21.8 mag, D ≈ 150 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.60 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.86 LD.

See: 2016 XA2  - JPL , 2016 XA2  - SSA

 

1927, Dec 31

Apollo NEA 2018 WR1  (H = 20.3 mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.74 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.82 LD.

See: 2018 WR1 – SSA , 2018 WR1 – JPL

 

1928, Jan 23

Apollo NEA 2010 XC25 (H = 21.1 mag, D ≈ 210 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.34 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.20 LD.                                                                            

See: 2010 XC25 - JPL , 2010 XC25 - SSA

 

1928, Apr 25

Aten NEA 2011 DV (H = 20.5 mag, D ≈ 280 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.53 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.11 LD.                                                                            

See: 2011 DV - JPL , 2011 DV - SSA

See also: 25 Apr 2120.

 

1928, May 7

Apollo NEA 2020 HR3 (H = 24.1 mag, D ≈ 50 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.77 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.43 LD.                                                                            

See: 2020 HR3 – S2P , 2020 HR3 – JPL

 

1928, Nov 20

Apollo NEA 2005 LW3 (H = 21.7 mag, D ≈ 160 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.17 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.16 LD.                                                                            

See: 2005 LW3 - JPL , 2005 LW3 - SSA

See also: 23 Nov 2022, 22 Nov 2084.

 

1929, Apr 4

Apollo NEA 2007 SQ6 (H = 22.0 mag, D ≈ 140 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.53 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.74 LD.                                                                            

See: 2007 SQ6 - JPL , 2007 SQ6 - SSA

See also: 3 Apr 2072.

 

1929, Nov 1

Apollo NEA 2016 VP1  (H = 27.3 mag, D ≈ 13 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.07 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.62 LD.

See: 2016 VP1  - JPL , 2016 VP1  - SSA

See also: 2 Nov 2075.

 

1930, Jan 1

5 NEAs known, of which 0 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1930, Jan 29

Apollo NEA 2018 BT6 (H = 21.4 mag, D ≈ 180 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.73 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.72 LD.                                                                           

See: 2018 BT6 - JPL , 2018 BT6 - SSA

 

1930, May 13

Aten NEA 2011 AX22 (H = 24.9 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.95 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.18 LD.

See: 2011 AX22 - JPL , 2011 AX22 - SSA

See also: 13 May 2055.

 

1930, Jul 27

Apollo NEA 2014 SP142 (H = 21.8 mag, D ≈ 160 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.72 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.02 LD.                                                                            

See: 2014 SP142 - JPL , 2014 SP142 - SSA

See also: 27 Jul 1984.

 

1930, Aug 13

Curuçá Fireball and Airburst over Rio Curuçá (Amazonas, Brazil). Coinciding with the annual Perseid meteor shower.

See:

http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1102.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

Ref:

- N. Vasilyev, G. Andreev, 1989, WGN, the Journal of the International Meteor Organization, 17, 245, "The Brazilian twin of the Tunguska Meteorite: myth or reality?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JIMO...17..245V  

- M.E. Bailey, D.J. Markham, S. Massai, J.E. Scriven, 1995, The Observatory, 115, 250, "The 1930 August 'Brazilian Tunguska' Event."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Obs...115..250B

- D. Steel, 1995, WGN, the Journal of the International Meteor Organization, 23, 207, "Two 'Tunguskas' in South America in the 1930's?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JIMO...23..207S

- W. Napier, D. Asher, 2009, Astronomy & Geophysics, 50, 1.18, "The Tunguska impact event and beyond."

See: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50118.x/abstract

- G. Cordero, A. Poveda, 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59(1), 10, "Curuça 1930: A probable mini-Tunguska?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011P%26SS...59...10C

 

1930, Oct 3

Apollo NEA 2016 TH (H = 29.4 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.41 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.80 LD.

See: 2016 TH - JPL , 2016 TH - SSA

 

1931, Feb 7

Apollo NEA 2008 PF1 (H = 21.2 mag, D ≈ 210 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.48 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.48 LD.

See: 2008 PF1 – SSA , 2008 PF1 – JPL

 

1931, May 8

Apollo NEA 2008 JP24 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.02 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.30 LD.

See: 2008 JP24 - JPL , 2008 JP24 - SSA

 

1931, Jun 7

Apollo NEA 2019 LZ4 (H = 24.6 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.20 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.12 LD.

See: 2019 LZ4 - JPL , 2019LZ4 - SSA

 

1931, Sep 7

Aten NEA 2010 RX30 (H = 27.4 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.65 LD. Minimum miss distance 9.59 LD.

See: 2010 RX30 - JPL , 2010 RX30 -SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_RX30      

See also: 8 Sep 2010.

 

1932, Feb 3

Aten NEA 2014 BW32 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.47 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.86 LD.

See: 2014 BW32 - JPL , 2014 BW32 - SSA

 

1932, Mar 12

Apollo NEA 2017 FD157 (H = 22.1 mag, D ≈ 130 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.07 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.43 LD.

See: 2017 FD157 - JPL , 2017 FD157 - SSA

See also: 13 Mrt 2094.

 

1932, Mar 12

Discovery by Eugène  Delporte (1882 – 1955) on 12 March 1932 at the Uccle Observatory  (Brussels, Belgium) of asteroid 1221 Amor (1932 EA1, H = 17.5 mag, D ≈ 1100 m) as an Earth-orbit approaching asteroid. Since then Amor is the namesake of the Amor asteroids.

See: 1932 EA1 - JPL , 1221 Amor - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1221_Amor 

 

1932, Apr 24

Discovery by Karl W. Reinmuth (1892 – 1979), on 24 April 1932 at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Heidelberg, Germany) of asteroid 1862 Apollo (1932 HA, H = 16.2 mag, D ≈ 1400 m, PHA) as an Earth-orbit crossing asteroid. Since then  Apollo is the namesake of the Apollo asteroids.

See:

1932 HA - JPL , 1862 Apollo - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1862_Apollo

Ref:

- M. Davidson, 1932, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc., 92, 691, "The Reinmuth object."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1932MNRAS..92..691D

- L.A. Lebofsky, G.J. Veeder, G.H. Rieke, et al., 1981, Icarus, 48, 335, "The albedo and diameter of 1862 Apollo."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Icar...48..335L  

 

1932, Oct 21

Apollo NEA 2012 CU (H = 26.3 mag, D ≈ 20 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.09 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.73 LD.

See: 2012 CU - JPL , 2012 CU - SSA

 

1932, Dec

In December 1932, scientists surveying the southern Egyptian desert came upon pieces of a translucent, pale yellow-green, glassy substance, from tiny fragments to football-sized chunks, scattered over a huge area at the Libyan border. Known as Libyan desert glass, this almost pure silica contained isotopes showing it to be of extraterrestrial origin. 

Further reading: see 3 March 2006.

See:

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/311/5765/1223c

See also: http://www.wits.ac.za/newsroom/newsitems/201310/21649/news_item_21649.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_desert_glass

 

1932, Dec 8

Arroyomolinos de León Fireball and Airburst (Spain).

See:

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2011/pdf/1368.pdf  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1932, Dec 29

Aten NEA 2012 XE133 (H = 23.5 mag, D ≈ 70 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.51 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.9985 LD.

See: 2012 XE133 - JPL , 2012 XE133 - SSA

 

1933, Jan 3

Apollo NEA 2017 XT61 (H = 23.1 mag, D ≈ 80 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.29 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.18 LD.

See: 2017 XT61 - JPL , 2017 XT61 - SSA

 

1933, Jan 17

Apollo NEA 7482 (1994 PC1, H = 16.7 mag, D ≈ 1300 m, PHA) passed Earth at 2.93 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.93 LD.

See: 1994 PC1 -JPL , 7482 1994 PC1 - SSA

See also: 18 Jan 2022.

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(7482)_1994_PC1

 

1933, Jun 5

Apollo NEA 2018 LU2 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.00 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.84 LD.

See: 2018 LU2 - JPL , 2018 LU2 - SSA

 

1933, Oct 22

Apollo NEA 2015 UM52 (H = 28.1 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.64 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.47 LD.                                                                                    [1933-01]                                                                                  

See: 2015 UM52 - JPL , 2015 UM52 - SSA

See also: 22 Oct 2015.

 

1933, Dec 13

Apollo NEA 2010 MU112 (H = 20.9 mag, D ≈ 599 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.19 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.17 LD.                                                                           

See: 2010 MU112 - JPL , 2010 MU112 - SSA

See also: 13 Dec 2082.

 

1934, Feb 10

Discovery of Apollo NEA 1934 CT and promptly lost. Re-discovered on 4 January 1989 and listed as 1989 AC = 4179 Toutatis (H = 15.3 mag, D ≈ 4750 x 1950 m)

See: 1934 CT - JPL , 4179 Toutatis - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4179_Toutatis

See: 4 Jan 1989.

 

1934, Apr 20

Apollo NEA 2014 SM143 (H = 20.4 mag, D ≈ 290 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.63 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.62 LD.                                                                            

See: 2014 SM143 - JPL , 2014 SM143 - SSA

See also: 19 Apr 2093, 23 Oct 2197.

 

1934, May 3

Apollo NEA 2011 JV10 (H = 30.0 mag, D ≈ 4 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.53 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.31 LD.

See: 2011 JV10 - JPL , 2011 JV10 - SSA

 

1934, Sep 22

Aten NEA 2013 RG74 (H = 23.3 mag, D ≈ 80 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.58 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.84 LD.

See: 2013 RG74 - JPL , 2013 RG74 - SSA

 

1935, Feb 8

Apollo NEA 2018 CN2 (H = 27.6 mag, D ≈ 11 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.94 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.77 LD.

See: 2018 CN2 - SSA , 2018 CN2 - JPL

http://iawn.net/

See also: 9 Feb 2018, 9 Feb 2088.

 

1935, Mar 8

Apollo NEA 2015 DD54 (H = 25.6 mag, D ≈ 27 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.48 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.48 LD.                                                                            [1935-01]

See: 2015 DD54 - JPL , 2015 DD54 - SSA

 

1935, Apr

G. Stracke, 1935, Astronomische Nachrichten, 255, 189, "25 Jahre genäherte Bearbeitung der Bahnen der Kleinen Planeten im Astronomischen Rechen-Institut." Predecessor of the Minor Planet Center. At the time 1301 minor planets were numbered. See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1935AN....255..189S

 

1935, Jul 20

Apollo NEA 2016 FG60 (H = 21.7 mag, D ≈ 160 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.97 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.30 LD.                                                                           

See: 2016 FG60 - JPL , 2016 FG60 - SSA

See also: 22 Jul 2107.

 

1935, Oct 6

Apollo NEA 2017 FQ127 (H = 26.2 mag, D ≈ 20 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.998 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.982 LD.                                                                          [1935-02]

See: 2017 FQ127 - JPL , 2017 FQ127 - SSA

 

1935, Dec 11

Rupununi Fireball and Airburst over Rupununi (British Guyana), near the date of the peak of the annual Geminid meteor shower.

Ref:

- D. Steel, 1995, WGN, the Journal of the International Meteor Organization, 23, 207, "Two 'Tunguskas' in South America in the 1930's?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JIMO...23..207S  

- W. Napier, D. Asher, 2009, Astronomy & Geophysics, 50, 1.18, "The Tunguska impact event and beyond."

See: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50118.x/abstract

 

1936

F. Watson, 1936, Popular Astronomy, 44, 2, "Meteor craters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1936PA.....44....2W

 

1936

F. Watson, E.M. Cook, 1936, Popular Astronomy, 44, 131, "The detonating Fireball of May 26, 1935."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1936PA.....44..131W

 

1936, Jan 6

Apollo NEA 2010 VB1 (H = 23.5 mag, D ≈ 70 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.55 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.55 LD.                                                                                    [1936-01]

See: 2010 VB1 - JPL , 2010 VB1 - SSA

See also: 7 Jan 2086.

 

1936, Feb 7

Second discovery of an Earth-orbit crossing Apollo NEA: asteroid 2101 Adonis (1936 CA, H = 18.4 mag, D ≈ 880 m, PHA), by Eugene Delporte (1872 – 1955, Belgium). Nominal miss distance of 5.77 LD. Minimum miss distance 5.77 LD. Subsequently lost; recovered in 1977.

See: 1936 CA - JPL , 2101 Adonis - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2101_Adonis

 

1936, Mar 3

Apollo NEA 2014 EF (H = 29.0 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.73 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.26 LD.

See: 2014 EF - JPL , 2014 EF - SSA

See also 6 Mar 2014.

 

1936, Apr 15

Apollo NEA 2015 GA1 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 8.27 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.42 LD.

See: 2015 GA1 - JPL , 2015 GA1 - SSA

 

1937

F.G. Watson, H. Shapley, 1937, Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, 105, no. 32, The Observatory, p. 623.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1937AnHar.105..623W  

 

1937, Oct 30

Apollo NEA 69230 Hermes (1937 UB, H = 17.5 mag, D ≈ 1100 m, PHA) passed Earth at 1.93 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.93 LD.

Discovered by Karl W. Reinmuth (1892 – 1979) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Heidelberg, Germany); lost; recovered 15 October 2003. Arecibo radar observations on the same day revealed it to be a binary asteroid, with components of D ≈ 400 m, separated by 1200 m.

See: 1937 UB - JPL , 69230 Hermes - SSA

See also:

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/31oct_hermes.htm  http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Oct03/Arecibo.asteroid.deb.html  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003IAUC.8227....2M

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/69230_Hermes

See also: 29 Oct 1914, 26 Apr 1942, 1 Nov 1954, 31 Oct 2086, 30 Apr 2123.

 

1938, Jan 09

Apollo NEA 332446 (2008 AF4, H = 19.7 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA) passed Earth at 2.19 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.18 LD.

See: 2008 AF4 - JPL , 2008 AF4 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(332446)_2008_AF4

 

1938, Mar 11

Apollo NEA 2013 FA8 (H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.10 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.90 LD.

See: 2013 FA8 - JPL , 2013 FA8 - SSA

 

1938, Jun 1

Apollo NEA 2017 KW31 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 8.54 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.52 LD.

See: 2017 KW31 - JPL , 2017 KW31 - SSA

 

1938, Jun 2

Aten NEA 437844 (1999 MN, H = 20.8 mag, D ≈ 250 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.37 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.37 LD.

See: 1999 MN - JPL , 1999 MN - SSA

See also: 2 Jun 1943, 4 Jun 2110, 4 Jun 2137, 3 Jun 2148.

 

1938, Jun 21

Aten NEA 2018 RW (H = 30.5 mag, D ≈ 2.8 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.27 L D. Minimum miss distance 0.05 LD.                                                                                    [1938-01]

See: 2018 RW - SSA , 2018 RW - JPL

See also: 8 Sep 2018.

 

1938, Jun 24

Chicora meteoroid. A meteoroid exploded as it entered the atmosphere above Chicora (PA, USA) on June 24, 1938. Based on the size of the explosion, the rock's initial mass (before it broke up) may have been more than 450 tons. However, only scant pieces of the meteorite were ever found – located miles away from where the main mass, missing to this day, is thought to have landed. Several reports on the Chicora meteorite mention that an unsuspecting cow was struck and injured by one falling shard; other accounts say that the poor animal was killed.

See:

http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1535-when-space-attacks-6-craziest-meteor-impacts-history.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicora,_Pennsylvania#Chicora_Meteor   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1938, Nov 2

Aten NEA 2016 VA (H = 27.8 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.73 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.42 LD.                                                                                     [1938-02]

See: 2016 VA  - SSA , 2016 VA - JPL

http://iawn.net/  

See also: 2 Nov 2016, 1 Nov 2024.

 

1938, Nov 18

Apollo NEA 496816 (1989 UP, H = 20.7 mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.02 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.02 LD.

See: 1989 UP - JPL , 1989 UP - SSA

 

1939, May 30

Apollo NEA 2012 KP24 (H = 26.2 mag, D ≈ 20 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.29 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.63 LD.

See: 2012 KP24 - JPL , 2012 KP24 - SSA

See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_KP24

See also: 28 May 2012.

 

1940, Jan 1

9 NEAs known, of which 3 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1940

F. Watson, 1940, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 34, 418, "The meteor of May 7, 1928."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1940JRASC..34..418W

 

1940, Mar 13

Apollo NEA 275677 (2000 RS11, H = 19.0 mag, D ≈ 600 m, PHA) passed Earth at 4.11 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.11 LD.

See: 2000 RS11 - JPL , 2000 RS11 - SSA

See also: 14 Mar 1927.

 

1940, May 29

Apollo NEA 2018 LE1 (H = 27.7 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.12 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.39 LD.

See: 2018 LE1 - JPL , 2018 LE1 - SSA

 

1940, Jul 6

Apollo NEA 2014 HC199 (H = 22.6 mag, D ≈ 110 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.45 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.30 LD.

See: 2014 HC199 – SSA , 2014 HC199 – JPL

 

1941

F.G. Watson, 1941, Between the planets (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

 

1941, Jan 10

Apollo NEA 2014 AW32 (H = 27.8 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.37 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.27 LD.                                                                            [1941-01]

See: 2014 AW32 - JPL , 2014 AW32 - SSA

See also: 10 Jan 2014.

 

1941, Apr 9

Chelyabinsk Airburst and Fireball (Russia).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1941, Oct 9

Apollo NEA 2011 UK10 (H = 24.7 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.16 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.30 LD.

See: 2011 UK10 - JPL , 2011 UK10 - SSA

 

1941, Oct 30

Aten NEA 2018 UC (H = 26.0 mag, D ≈ 22 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.14 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.93 LD.

See: 2018 UC - JPL , 2018 UC - SSA

See also: 10 Jun 2005.

 

1942, Feb

H.H. Nininger, 1942, Popular Astronomy, 50, 111, "A celestial bomb." On the Forest City (Iowa, USA) fall of 2 May 1890.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1942PA.....50..111N

 

1942, Mar 22

Aten NEA 2006 GB (H = 20.2 mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.36 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.35 LD.

See: 2006 GB - JPL , 2006 GB - SSA

See also: 22 Mar 2037, 22 Mar 2081.

 

1942, Apr 26

Apollo NEA 69230 Hermes (1937 UB, H = 17.5 mag, D ≈ 1100 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.65 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.65 LD.

See: 1937 UB  JPL , 69230 Hermes - SSA

See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/69230_Hermes

See also: 29 Oct 1914, 30 Oct 1937, 1 Nov 1954, 31 Oct 2086, 30 Apr 2123.

 

1943

Antoine de Saint Exupéry, 1943, Le Petit Prince (Paris: Editions Gallimard). Featuring fictional asteroid B612.

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Little_Prince

See also:

http://www.universetoday.com/96509/chasing-the-little-prince-in-new-york-city/

 

1943, Feb 26

Apollo NEA 2017 DR34 (H = 29.2 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.92 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.24 LD.

See: 2017 DR34 - JPL , 2017 DR34 - SSA

See also: 25 Feb 2017, 26 Feb 2105.

 

1943, Mar 27

Apollo NEA 2018 EM4 (H = 25.3 mag, D ≈ 37 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.57 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.08 LD.

See: 2018 EM4 - JPL , 2018 EM4 - SSA

See also: 26 Mar 2063.

 

1943, May 13

Apollo NEA 2015 KG158 (H = 28.1 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.19 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.72 LD.

See: 2015 KG158 - JPL , 2015 KG158 - SSA

See also: 15 May 2060.

 

1943, Jun 2

Apollo NEA 437844 (1999 MN, H = 20.8 mag, D ≈ 250 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.86 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.86 LD.

See: 1999 MN - JPL , 1999 MN - SSA

See also: 2 Jun 1938, 4 Jun 2110, 4 Jun 2137, 3 Jun 2148.

 

1944, Feb 6

Apollo NEA 2013 VA10 (H = 22.4 mag, D ≈ 120 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.30 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.29 LD.

See: 2013 VA10 – SSA , 2013 VA10 – JPL

See also: 6 Feb 1944, 8 Feb 2161.

 

1944, Mar 9

Apollo NEA 2017 DA36 (H = 25.1 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.06 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.31 LD.

See: 2017 DA36- JPL , 2017 DA36- SSA

 

1944, Jul 8

Aten NEA 2011 OB (H = 19.7 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.44 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.44 LD.

See: 2011 OB - JPL , 2011 OB - SSA

 

1944, Nov 14

Apollo NEA 2007 VF189 (H = 28.6 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.28 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.92 LD.

See: 2007 VF189 - JPL , 2007 VF189 - SSA

See also: 14 Nov 2007.

 

1944, Dec

Daytime Fireball over Bulannyo (Rhodesia). Norman Appleton witnessed a meteor so bright he remembered it his entire life. Right before his eyes a tremendous smoking fireball streaked across the daytime sky. Years later, as an accomplished member of the Guild of Aviation Artists, he recorded his memories in a painting.

See:

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap010728.html http://www.gava.org.uk/index.cfm?page=searchresults&searchType=quickSearch  

 

1945, Mar 15

Aten NEA 2020 FK1 (H = 27.3 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.24 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.16 LD.  

See: 2020 FK1 – S2P , 2020 FK1 - JPL                                                                               

See also: 15 Mar 2070. 

 

1945, Jun 1

Aten NEA 2008 LH2 (H = 23.6 mag, D ≈ 70 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.94 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.002 LD.                                                                                  

See: 2008 LH2 - JPL , 2008 LH2 - SSA

 

1945, Jul 19

Apollo NEA 2016 BA15 (H = 27.0 mag, D ≈ 14 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.99 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.09 LD.

See: 2016 BA15 - JPL , 2016 BA15 - SSA

See also: 21 Jul 2056.

 

1945, Sep 4

Apollo NEA 2014 RC (H = 26.9 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.67 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.42 LD.

See: 2014 RC - JPL , 2014 RC - SSA

See also: 7 Sep 2014.

 

1945, Nov 2

Aten NEA 2016 VA (H = 27.8 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.26 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.07 LD.

See: 2016 VA - JPL , 2016 VA - SSA

 

1946, Apr 29

Apollo NEA 2008 UC202 (H = 28.9 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.51 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.85 LD.

See: 2008 UC202 - JPL , 2008 UC202 - SSA

 

1946, Aug 7

Asteroid 137108 (1999 AN10, H = 18.4 mag, D ≈ 700 m, PHA) passed Earth at 2.43 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.43 LD.

See: 1999 AN10 - JPL , 137108 1999 AN10 - SSA

See also: 7 Aug 2027.

 

1946, Nov 15 

Apollo NEA 2018 VJ10 (H = 28.8 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.48 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.98 LD.                                                                                     

See: 2018 VJ10 - SSA , 2018 VJ10 - JPL

See also: http://iawn.net/

See also: 14 Nov 2018.

 

1947

IAU Minor Planet Center (MPC), established by the International Astronomical Union, Commission 20, and succeeding the work which was carried out since 1910 by the Rechen-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem (Germany), started operations at the Observatory of the University of Cincinnati (Ohio, USA), director Paul Herget (1908 – 1981, USA). At the time, 1564 minor planets were numbered. Upon Herget's retirement in 1978, the amount of numbered minor planets had reached 2060, and the MPC moved to the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge (MA, USA) with Brian G. Marsden (1937 – 2010) as director. For a history of the MPC, see:

- C.M. Bardwell, 1989, "A brief history of the Minor Planet Center."

- B.G. Marsden, 2009, IAU Information Bulletin, No. 104, p. 67, "History of the Minor Planet Center." See: http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/mpc.html  http://www.iau.org/static/publications/IB104.pdf  ,  p. 67.

 

1947, Feb 12

Sikhote-Alin Fireball and Airburst passed over Sikhote-Alin mountains (Primorye, Russia), creating a 32 km long smoke trail in the sky at an altitude of 5.6 km. The bright flash and the deafening sound of the fall were observed at 300 km around the point of impact, not far from Luchegorsk and ~ 440 km northeast of Vladivostok. The pre-impact mass of the meteoroid may have been 100,000 kg. The strewn field of this meteorite covered an elliptical area of about 1.3 km. Some fragments made craters, the largest of which was about 26 m across and 6 m deep.

Ref:

- R.A. Gallant, 1997, Sky & Telescope, 93, no. 2, p.50, "Sikhote-Alin: 50 years later."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997S%26T....93b..50G

See also:  

http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1535-when-space-attacks-6-craziest-meteor-impacts-history.html   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikhote-Alin_meteorite

 

1947, Mar 1

Apollo NEA 2014 PW59 (H = 21.0 mag, D ≈ 230 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.27 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.26 LD.

See: 2014 PW59 - JPL , 2014 PW59 - SSA

See also: 26 Feb 1906.

 

1947, Apr 3

Apollo NEA 2008 GM2 (H = 28.3 mag, D ≈ 8 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.99 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.51 LD.

See: 2008 GM2 - JPL , 2008 GM2 - SSA

See also: 3 Apr 2008.

 

1947, Apr 21

Apollo NEA 2016 EK27 (H = 22.5 mag, D ≈ 110 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.38 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.51 LD.

See: 2016 EK27 - JPL , 2016 EK27 - SSA

 

1947, Dec 3

Apollo NEA 2008 WA14 (H = 22.9 mag, D ≈ 90 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.89 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.27 LD.

See: 2008 WA14 -JPL , 2008 WA14 - SSA

 

1948

The international yearbook "Ephemerides of minor planets", published since 1948 for the International Astronomical Union by the Institute of Applied Astronomy, St Petersburg (Russian Federation), contains information on orbital elements of numbered minor planets and the circumstances of their observations during the best observation periods.

See: http://www.ipa.nw.ru/PAGE/DEPFUND/LSBSS/engephem.htm

 

1948, Mar 31

Aten NEA 2015 FA285 (H = 26.7 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.23 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.44 LD.

See: 2015 FA285 - JPL , 2015 FA285 - SSA

 

1948, May 11

Aten NEA 2020 JQ1 (H = 26.0 mag, D ≈ 22 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.98 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.27 LD.

See: 2020 JQ1 – S2P , 2020 JQ1 – JPL

See also: 12 May 1967,  12 May 2039.

 

1949

Ralph E. Baldwin (…. – 19.., USA), The Face of the Moon (Chicago: UCP), describing the damage that a NEO impact might cause on Earth.

Reviews: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1949PA.....57..257B

 

1949, Jan 1

Apollo NEA 2003 YS70 (H = 29.1 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.68 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.63 LD.                                                                                    [1949-01]

See: 2003 YS70 - JPL , 2003 YS70 - SSA

 

1949, Apr 14

Aten NEA 99942 Apophis (2004 MN4, H = 19.7 mag, D = 310 ± 30 m, orbital P = 0.89 yr, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 10.89 LD. Minimum miss distance 10.87 LD.

See: 2004 MN4 - JPL , 99942 Apophis - SSA

See also: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Herschel_intercepts_asteroid_Apophis

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/99942_Apophis

See also: 13 Apr 1907, 14 Apr 1998, 13 Apr 2029, 23 Mar 2036, 7 Apr 2123.

 

1949, Jun 11

Kunashak Meteor Shower.  A shower of about 20 meteorites fell near Kunashak (Chelyabinsk Province, Russia). Total recovered weight over 200 kg, the largest stones weighing 120 kg, 40 kg, and 36 kg. See: http://books.google.nl/books?id=mkdHJR35Q_8C&pg=PA285&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false  http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=12377  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelyabinsk_meteor

 

1949, Jun 27

Discovery of Earth-orbit crossing Apollo NEA 1566 Icarus (1949 MA, H = 16.3 mag, D = 1300 m, also Venus- and Mercury-orbit crossing, PHA) by Walter Baade (1893 – 1960, Germany/USA). In 1968 Icarus became the first minor planet to be observed by radar. It is plausible that Icarus and asteroid 5786 Talos (1991 RC, H = 16.0 mag, D 1.3 km) and asteroid 2007 MK6 (H = 19.9 mag, D 350 m) are related.

See:

1949 MA - JPL , 1566 Icarus - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1566_Icarus  

Ref:

- D.K. Yeomans, 1991, Astronomical Journal, 101, 1920, "A comet among the near-earth asteroids?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AJ....101.1920Y  

Erratum:  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AJ....104.1266Y   

- D. Steel, 1991, Nature, 354, 265, "Our asteroid-pelted planet." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.354..265S

- K. Ohtsuka, H. Arakida, T. Ito, et al., 2007, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 668, L71, "Apollo asteroids 1566 Icarus and 2007 MK6: Icarus family members?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApJ...668L..71O  

 

1949, Aug 10

Apollo NEA 2018 PD20 (H = 27.5 mag, D ≈ 11 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.77 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.57 LD.

See: 2019 PD20 – SSA , 2019 PD20 – JPL

 

1949, Oct 14

Apollo NEA 2016 TZ55 (H = 26.9 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.98 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.06 LD.

See: 2016 TZ55 - JPL , 2016 TZ55 - SSA

 

1949, Dec 11

Aten NEA 2010 XR69 (H = 26.1 mag, D ≈ 22 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.42 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.90 LD.

See: 2010 XR69 -JPL , 2010 XR69 - SSA

 

1950, Jan 1

13 NEAs known, of which 5 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1950

The Yerkes-McDonald Survey of Asteroids (1950 – 1952), down to v = 16.5, was performed by astronomers Gerard P. Kuiper (1905 – 1973, Netherlands/USA), George A. Van Biesbroeck (1880 – 1974, Belgium/USA), Cornelis J. van Houten (1920 – 2002, Netherlands), Ingrid M. van Houten-Groeneveld (Netherlands) and Tom Gehrels (Netherlands/USA). A number of 3247 objects were found.

Ref:

- G.P. Kuiper, Y. Fujita, T. Gehrels, I. M. Groeneveld, J. Kent, G.A. Van Biesbroeck, C.J. van Houten, 1958, Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 3, 289, "Survey of asteroids".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958ApJS....3..289K

 

1950, Feb 10

Aten NEA 2009 BE58 (H = 21.8 mag, D ≈ 150 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.08 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.07 LD.

See: 2009 BE58 - JPL , 2009 BE58 - SSA

See also: 11 Feb 2058, 13 Feb 2194.

 

1950, Sep 10

Apollo NEA 2018 RB1 (H = 27.7 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.17 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.28 LD.

See: 2018 RB1 -JPL , 2018 RB1 - SSA

 

1950, Oct 2

Apollo NEA 2018 TP5 (H = 25.7 mag, D ≈ 25 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.96 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.84 LD.                                                                                    [1950-01]

See: 2018 TP5 -JPL , 2018 TP5 - SSA

See also: 3 Oct 2042.

 

1950, Dec 12

Apollo NEA 523685 (2014 DN112, H = 19.9 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.68 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.67 LD.

See: 2014 DN112 - JPL , 2014 DN112 - SSA

 

1951

Ernst Julius Öpik (1893-1985, Estonia – Ireland), 1951, Proc. Royal Irish Academy, 54A, 165, "Collision probabilities with the planets and the distribution of interplanetary matter."

Discussing the possible importance of the Yarkovsky effect, discovered by Ivan Osipovich Yarkovsky (1844-1902, Russian-Polish civil engineer) for meteoroids moving about the Solar System.

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1951PRIA...54..165O http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yarkovsky_effect  

 

1951, Apr 30

Asteroid 2013 JL22 (H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 190 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.64 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.64 LD.

See: 2013 JL22 - JPL , 2013 JL22 - SSA

 

1951, May 2

Aten NEA 2019 JX1  (H = 29.2 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.20 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.75 LD.                                                                                                                                                                          

See: 2019 JX1 - SSA , 2019 JX1 - JPL

See also: 2 May 2019   

 

1951, Jun 22

Apollo NEA 496860 (1999 XL136, H = 19.4 mag, D ≈ 500 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.05 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.05 LD.

See: 1999 XL136 - JPL , 1999 XL136 - SSA

See also: 23 Jun 2012.

 

1952

V.V. Radzievskii, 1952, Astron. Zh., 29, 162, "A mechanism for the disintegration of asteroids and meteorites".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1952AZh....29..162R

 

1952, Jun 7

Aten NEA 2014 HQ124 (H = 19.0 mag, D ≈ 370 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.35 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.35 LD.

See: 2014 HQ124 -JPL , 2014 HQ124 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_HQ124

See also: 7 Jun 1901, 8 Jun 2014, 8 Jun 2065.

 

1952, Dec

E.J. Öpik, 1952, Irish Astronomical Journal, 2, 95, "Collisions with heavenly bodies."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1952IrAJ....2...95O

 

1952, Dec 9

Apollo NEA 2014 QK434 (H = 19.5 mag, D ≈ 500 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.10 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.97 LD.

See: 2014 QK434 - JPL , 2014 QK434 - SSA

 

1952, Dec 24

Asteroid 450293 (2004 LV3, H = 19.1 mag, D ≈ 500 m, PHA) passed Earth at 4.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.61 LD.

See: 2004 LV3 - JPL , 2004 LV3 - SSA

See also: 25 Dec 2049.

 

1953, Nov 29

Aten NEA 153201 (2000 WO107, H = 19.4 mag, D ≈ 510 m, PHA) passed Earth at 2.53 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.53 LD.

See: 2000 WO107 - JPL , 2000 WO107 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(153201)_2000_WO107

See also: 30 Nov 2093, 1 Dec 2140.

 

1954

A.C.B. Lovell, 1954, Meteor Astronomy (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1954QB741.L6.......  

A critical review of this book, with comments on meteor velocities in particular, is given by E.J. Öpik, 1955, Irish Astronomical Journal, 3, 144, "Meteor astronomy."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1955IrAJ....3..144O  

 

1954, Feb 28

Apollo NEA 462550 (2009 CB3, H = 19.7 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.47 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.47 LD.

See: 2009 CB3 - JPL , 2009 CB3 - SSA

 

1954, Mar 13

Apollo NEA 2013 RZ53 (H = 31.4 mag, D ≈ 1.9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.27 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.27 LD.                                                                            [1954-01]

See: 2013 RZ53 - JPL , 2013 RZ53 - SSA

See also: 18 Sep 2013.

 

1954, Mar 18

Aten NEA 2005 FN (H = 26.6 mag, D ≈ 17 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.02 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.06 LD.

See: 2005 FN - JPL , 2005 FN - SSA

 

1954, Aug 1

Apollo NEA 2011 CC22  (H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 11.87 LD. Minimum miss distance 11.86 LD.

See: 2011 CC22  - SSA , 2011 CC22  - JPL

See also: 4 Aug 2017.

 

1954, Aug 2

Apollo NEA 2019 BV2 (H = 25.6 mag, D ≈ 27 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.98 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.37 LD.                                                                                    [1954-02]

See: 2019 BV2 - JPL , 2019 BV2 - SSA

See also: 26 Jan 2016, 2 Aug 2064.

 

1954, Nov 30

Hodges meteorite. First known modern case of a human hit by a space rock occurred in Sylacauga (Alabama, USA). A 4 kg stone chondrite crashed through a roof and hit Mrs. Ann Hodges in her living room after it bounced off her radio. She was badly bruised. The Hodges meteorite, or Sylacauga meteorite, is on exhibit at the Alabama Museum of Natural History.

See:

http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1535-when-space-attacks-6-craziest-meteor-impacts-history.html   

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/only-person-ever-hit-meteorite-real-trouble-began-later-180961238/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylacauga_(meteorite) 

 

1954, Dec

G.P. Kuiper, 1954, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 40(12), 1096, "On the origin of the lunar surface features."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1954PNAS...40.1096K

 

1954, Dec 4

Apollo NEA 2012 KT42 (H = 28.6 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.03 LD.

See: 2012 KT42 - JPL , 2012 KT42 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_KT42

See also: 3 Dec 1915, 29 May 2012.

 

1955, Mar 13

Apollo NEA 2020 EQ (H = 29.1 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.36 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.15 LD.

See: 2020 EQ – S2P , 2020 EQ – JPL

 

1955, Jun 19

Apollo NEA 2015 LR21 (H = 26.7 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.59 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.56 LD.                                                                            [1955-01]

See: 2015 LR21 - JPL , 2015 LR21 - SSA

 

1955, Sep 18

Aten NEA 2015 KE (H = 26.3 mag, D ≈ 20 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.30 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.03 LD.

See: 2015 KE  - JPL , 2015 KE - SSA

See also: 7 May 2107.

 

1956, Jan

M.W. De Laubenfels, 1956, suggested that the dinosaurs demise is due to an impact event and the resulting super-hot winds that would result. He scaled up the effects of the Tunguska blast and made first suggestion of the death of the dinosaurs being impact related. Mammals first appeared in Cretaceous with the most outstanding type differing little from the modern opossum. The author argues for a brief period of extreme heat enough to kill exposed large animals. Birds, mammals, aquatic animals would have survived. He notes in October 1937 the close Earth approach of Hermes and the Tunguska event. He computes an amount of heat available from a 100 m sized impactor at 10 km/s and notes that if kinetic energy turned into heat, it would be enough to boil 1016 tons of water whereas entire oceans are 1018 tons.

- Ref: M.W. De Laubenfels (Oregon State College), 1956, Journal of Paleontology, 30, 207, "Dinosaur extinction: one more hypothesis."

See: http://www.norwebster.com/astrohit/

 

1956, May

C.S. Beals, G.M. Ferguson, A. Landau, 1956, Sky & Telescope, 15, 296, "The Holleford Crater in Ontario."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1956S%26T....15..296B

 

1956, Oct 13

Apollo NEA 496817 (1989 VB, H = 20.1 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.26 LD. Minimum miss distance 7.26 LD.

See: 1989 VB - SSA , 1989 VB - JPL

See also: 29 Sep 2017, 20 Oct 2078.

 

1956, Nov

Harold C. Urey (1893 – 1981, USA), 1956, Astrophysical Journal, 124, 623, "Diamonds, meteorites, and the origin of the Solar System."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1956ApJ...124..623U

 

1956, Nov 24

Apollo NEA 2013 NJ (H = 22.1 mag, D ≈ 130 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.63 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.60 LD.

See: 2013 NJ - SSA , 2013 NJ – JPL

See also: 24 Nov 1997, 26 Nov 2013, 26 Nov 2067.

 

1956, Dec 16

Aten NEA 33342 (1998 WT24, H = 18.3 mag, D ≈ 415 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.52 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.52 LD.

See: 1998 WT24 - JPL , 1998 WT24 - SSA

See also:

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/1998wt24.html  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast14dec_1/   http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4800

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(33342)_1998_WT24

See also: 16 Dec 1908, 16 Dec 2001, 11 Dec 2015, 18 Dec 2099

 

1957, Jan 31

Apollo NEA 2019 CD2 (H = 19.9 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.95 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.13 LD.                                                                                     

See: 2019 CD2 - JPL , 2019 CD2 - SSA

 

1957, Sep

C.S. Beals, 1957, Sky & Telescope, 16, 526, "A probable meteorite crater of great age."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1957S%26T....16..526B

 

1957, Oct 26

Apollo NEA 2019 UY7 (H = 27.5 mag, D ≈ 11 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.00 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.05 LD.

See: 2019 UY7 – SSA , 2019 UY – JPL

 

1957, Dec 10

Apollo NEA 2010 XW58 (H = 25.0 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.16 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.16 LD.                                                                            [1957-01]

See: 2010 XW58 - JPL , 2010 XW58 - SSA

 

1958

E.J. Öpik, 1958, Physics of meteor flight in the atmosphere (New York: Interscience Publishers).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958QB741.O38......

 

1958, Feb 22

C.S. Beals, 1958, Nature, 181, 559, "A survey of terrestrial craters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958Natur.181..559B

 

1958, Mar

E.J. Öpik, 1958, Irish Astronomical Journal, 5, 34, "On the catastrophic effect of collisions with celestial bodies." Öpik proposed that NEO impacts might have handicapped the development of land in the paleontological history.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958QB741.O38......

 

1958, Jul

G.P. Kuiper, Y. Fujita, T. Gehrels, I.M. Groeneveld, J. Kent, G.A. Van Biesbroeck, C.J. van Houten, 1958, Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 3, 289, "Survey of asteroids".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958ApJS....3..289K

 

1958, Oct 11

Aten NEA 2008 TZ (H = 25.2 mag, D ≈ 30 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.05 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.002 LD.                                                                                    

See: 2008 TZ - JPL , 2008 TZ - SSA

 

1959, Jan 27

Aten NEA 2012 BX34 (H = 27.4 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.53 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.40 LD.                                                                                    [1959-01]

See: 2012 BX34 - JPL , 2012 BX34 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_BX34

See also: 27 Jan 2012

 

1959, Apr 7

Příbram Meteorite Fall, the first meteorite simultaneously observed by several stations in the Czech Republic. The network was initiated locally at Ondřejov Observatory. By 1963, the network consisted of 5 stations. In 1968 it had expanded by the installation of about 15 new stations in Germany, and was named the European Fireball Network.

- Ref: P. Spurný, J. Boroviča, L. Shrbený, 2007, in: A. Milani, G.B. Valsecchi & D. Vokrouhlický (eds.), Proc. IAU Symposium No. 236 on Near Earth Objects, our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, Prague (Czech Republic), 14-18 August 2006 (Cambridge: CUP), p. 121, "Automation of the Czech part of the European Fireball Network: equipment, methods and first results."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IAUS..236..121S  http://www.dlr.de/pf/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-623/1043_read-26813/  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Fireball_Network  

 

1959, Jul 13

Amor NEA 2017 NM6 (H = 19.0 mag, D ≈ 600 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.76 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.09 LD.

See: 2017 NM6 - JPL , 2017 NM6 - SSA

 

1959, Nov 11

Apollo NEA 2018 VX1 (H = 27.7 mag, D ≈10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.96 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.87 LD.                                                                                     [1959-02]                                                                             

See: 2018 VX1 - SSA , 2018 VX1 - JPL

See also: http://iawn.net/

See also: 10 Nov 2018.

 

1959, Nov 25

Apollo NEA 2018 WE1 (H = 26.2 mag, D ≈ 20 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 8.60 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.77 LD.

See: 2018 WE1 - JPL , 2018 WE1 - SSA

See also: 25 Nov 2018.

 

1959, Dec 15

Aten NEA 487577 (2014 YQ15, H = 20.9 mag, D ≈ 240 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.64 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.57 LD.

See: 2014 YQ15 - JPL , 2014 YQ15- SSA

See also: 15 Dec 2066, 16 Dec 2122.

 

1960, Jan 1

20 NEAs known, of wh ich 8 PHA6.  

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1960, Jan 17

Aten NEA 2001 BA16 (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 18 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.88 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.20 LD.                                                                                    

See: 2001 BA16 - JPL , 2001 BA16 - SSA

See also: 15 Jan 2001.

 

1960, Sep - Oct

Tom Gehrels took Palomar Schmidt (1.2-m) plates, on which C.J. van Houten et al. (1970) discovered over 2000 asteroids with v < 20 mag, including four NEAs.

Ref: C.J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, P. Herget & T. Gehrels, 1970, Astronomy & Astrophysics Suppl., 2, 339, "The Palomar-Leiden survey of faint minor planets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970A%26AS....2..339V  

C.J. van Houten, P. Herget, B.G. Marsden, 1984, Icarus, 59, 1, "The Palomar-Leiden survey of faint minor planets – Conclusion."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Icar...59....1V  

 

1960, Oct 24

Aten NEA 2004 UH1 (H = 28.2 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.47 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.41 LD.                                                                                    [1960-01]

See: 2004 UH1 - JPL , 2004 UH1 - SSA

See also: 24 Oct 2004.

 

1961, Mar 24

Aten NEA 234145 (2000 EW70, H = 21.9 mag, D ≈ 344 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.75 LD.

See: 2000 EW70 - JPL , 2000 EW70 - SSA

See also: 24 Mar 1971.

 

1961, Apr 12

Aten NEA 163243 (2002 FB3, H = 16.6 mag, D 1620 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.90 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.90 LD.

See: 2002 FB3 - JPL , 2002 FB3 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(163243)_2002_FB3

 

1961, Oct

Eugene M. Shoemaker and Edward C.T. Chao proved that Nördlingen Ries crater (d = 24 km, Nördlingen, western Bavaria, Germany), formed ~14.4 My ago in the Miocene, was caused by meteorite impact. Another impact crater, the much smaller (3.8 km diameter) Steinheim crater, is located ~ 42 km WSW from the centre of Ries. The two craters are believed to have formed nearly simultaneously by the impact of a binary asteroid. The impactors probably had diameters of ~ 1.5 km (Ries) and 150 m (Steinheim), and a pre-impact separation of some tens of kilometers.

Ref:

- E.M. Shoemaker, E.C.T. Chao, 1961, Journal of Geophysical Research, 66, 3371, "New evidence for the impact origin of the Ries Basin, Bavaria, Germany."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1961JGR....66.3371S

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C3%B6rdlinger_Ries  http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/images/ries.htm  http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/nordlingen2010/  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a14/a14ries.html  

The Earth Impact Database lists some 170 known impact craters on Earth.

See: http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/

 

1961, Oct 11

Apollo NEA 2008 TC3 (H = 30.3 mag, D 4.1 m, Apollo NEO) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.25 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.20 LD. 

See: 2008 TC3 - JPL , 2008 TC3 - SSA

See also: 4 Oct 1917, 2 Oct 1971, 27 Jan 1988, 6 Oct 2008.

 

1962, Mar 24

H.C. Urey, 1962, Nature, 193, 1119, " Life-forms in meteorites: origin of life-like forms in carbonaceous chondrites. Introduction." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1962Natur.193.1119U

 

1962, Mar 30

Aten NEA 2002 GQ (H = 26.8 mag, D 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.97 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.49 LD. 

See: 2002 GQ - JPL , 2002 GQ - SSA

See also: 20 Mar 2035.

 

1963

Eugene M. Shoemaker (1928 – 1997, USA) and colleagues firmly established the impact origin of the Meteor Crater in Arizona. Meteor Crater is located approximately 69 km east of Flagstaff, near Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States. The site was formerly known as the Canyon Diablo Crater. Scientists generally refer to it as Barringer Crater, in honor of the geologist Daniel Barringer (1860 – 1929) who was first to suggest that it was produced by meteorite impact. Barringer Meteor Crater lies at an elevation of about 1,740 m above sea level. It is ~ 1,200 m in diameter, 170 m deep, and is surrounded by a rim that rises 45 m above the surrounding plains. The center of the crater is filled with 210 – 240 m of rubble lying above crater bedrock. The incoming asteroid had a diameter of ~ 25 m and a velocity of 15 km/s. The largest meteorite found is the so-called Holsinger meteorite, weighing 639 kg, on display in the Meteor Crater Visitor Center on the rim of the crater.

See:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_Crater  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barringer_Crater  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holsinger_Meteorite

Ref:

- E.M. Shoemaker, 1963, in: B.M. Middlehurst & G.P. Kuiper (eds.), The Moon, Meteorites, and Comets (Chicago: UCP), p. 301, "Impact mechanics at Meteor Crater, Arizona."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1963mmc..book..301S

- D.J. Roddy, E.M. Shoemaker, 1995, Meteoritics 30(5), 567, "Meteor Crater (Barringer Meteorite Crater), Arizona: summary of impact conditions."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.567R

- M. Boslough, 1996, Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 20.2, March/April 1996, "Scientific knowledge is money in the bank." See: http://www.csicop.org/si/show/scientific_knowledge_is_money_in_the_bank

- D.A. Kring, 1997, Meteoritics& Planetary Science, 32, 517, "Air blast produced by the Meteor Crater impact event and a reconstruction of the affected environment."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997M%26PS...32..517K  

- D.A. Kring, 1999, Sky & Telescope, 98(5), 48, "Calamity at Meteor Crater."

 See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999S%26T....98e..48K  

- H.J. Melosh, G.S. Collins, 2005, Nature, 434, 157, "Meteor Crater formed by a low-velocity impact."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.434..157M

See also: http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/images/barringer.htm  http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap070623.html

 

1963

Initiation of the European Fireball Network. Ref: J. Olberst, S. Molau, D. Heinlein, et al., 1998, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33, 49, "The 'European Fireball Network': Current status and future prospects".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998M&PS...33...49O

See also:

http://www.molau.de/meteore/imc97-2.html  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IAUS..236..121S  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6936/full/423123a.html  http://www.dlr.de/pf/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-623/1043_read-1425/  

 

1963

M.R. Dence, M.J.S. Innes, C.S. Beals, 1963, Astronomical Journal, 68, 534, "On the probable meteorite origin of the Clearwater Lakes, Quebec."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1963AJ.....68..534D

 

1963, Mar

Initiation of the Prairie Meteorite Network, with a prototype station in Havanna (IL, USA). By May 1964, 16 stations were operational.

Ref:

- R.E. McCrosky, H. Boeschenstein, 1965, SAO Special Report, No. 173, "The Prairie Meteorite Network."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965SAOSR.173.....M   

- Z. Ceplecha, R.E. McCrosky, 1997, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 32, A157, "Prairie Network fireballs: data on height, distance and brightness for each measured time-mark."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997M%26PSA..32..157C  

 

1963, Aug 3

Prince Edward Islands Fireball and Airburst (South Africa). See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1963, Nov 2

R.L.C. Gallant, 1963, Nature, 200, 414, "Changes in the Earth's axis due to large meteorite collisions."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1963Natur.200..414G

 

1963, Nov 4

Apollo NEA 2010 JL88 (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 18 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.80 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.56 LD.

See: 2010 JL88 - JPL , 2010 JL88 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_JL88

 

1964

C.S. Beals, M.R. Dence, A.J. Cohen, 1964, Astronomical Journal, 69, 134, "Evidence suggesting a meteorite impact origin for Lac Couture, Quebec."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1964AJ.....69R.134B

 

1964

Dandridge M. Cole, Donald W. Cox, 1964, Islands in space: the challenge of the planetoids (Philadephia: Chilton).

See: http://discoveryenterprise.blogspot.com/2007/08/islands-in-space-challenge-of.html

 

1964

René L.C. Gallant (1906 – 1985, Belgium), 1964, Bombarded Earth (London: John Baker Publishers Ltd).

See: http://www.catastrophism.com/cdrom/pubs/books/gallant/index.htm  http://www.velikovsky.info/Ren%C3%A9_Gallant#cite_note-palmer2003-0

 

1964, Nov 26

Apollo NEA 2014 EU (H = 27.8 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.71 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.88 LD.

See: 2014 EU - JPL , 2014 EU- SSA

 

1965, Jan 17

Apollo NEA 2007 BD (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 18 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.002 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.855 LD.

See: 2007 BD - JPL , 2007 BD - SSA

See also: 18 Jan 2007.

 

1965, Mar 31

Revelstoke Fireball and Airburst, 64 km NW of the city of Revelstoke (BC, Canada): an extremely bright bolide giving off sparks was observed to travel for 100 km in 8 seconds.

See:

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=22592  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1965, Jun 6

Aten NEA 163348 (2002 NN4, H = 20.3 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.01 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.01 LD.

See: 2002 NN4 - JPL , 2002 NN4 - SSA

See also: 5 Jun 1924, 6 Jun 2070, 7 Jun 2130.

 

1965, Oct 21

Apollo NEA 171576 (1999 VP11, H = 18.7 mag, D ≈ 700 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.42 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.36 LD.

See: 1999 VP11 - JPL , 1999 VP11 - SSA

See also: 21 Oct 1982, 22 Oct 2086.

 

1965, Oct 27

Aten NEA 2005 VL1 (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 18 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.75 LD.                                                                                     [1965-01]

See: 2005 VL1 - JPL , 2005 VL1 - SSA

See also: 3 Nov 2087.

 

1966, Jan 12

Apollo NEA 2016 AN165  (H = 28.0 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.21 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.31 LD.

See: 2016 AN165- JPL , 2016 AN165- SSA

See also: 13 Jan 2016.

 

1966, Feb 18

Apollo NEA 2011 DS (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.44 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.55 LD.

See: 2011 DS - JPL , 2011 DS - SSA

See also: 14 Aug 1901, 18 Feb 2050.

 

1966, July

In an UPI report, Australian scientist S.T. Butler noted an upcoming close Earth approach by the asteroid 1566 Icarus (1949 MA, H = 16.0 mag, D = 1.3 km, PHA) in 1968. He suggested that the asteroid could possibly be destroyed by a nuclear warhead if it neared the Earth. Paul Sandorff (MIT, U.S.A.) then assigned a hypothetical problem to his system engineering class. This “Icarus Project” drew a good deal of attention, including a Time Magazine story in June 1967 and a book the following year.

See: 1949 MA -JPL , 1566 Icarus - SSA ,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Icarus

Ref:

- Time Magazine, 16 June 1967, "Systems engineering: avoiding an asteroid";

- Louis A. Kleinman (ed.), 1968, "Project Icarus: an MIT student project in systems engineering" (Cambridge: MIT Press);

- MIT Students, 1979, "Project Icarus – revised edition" (Cambridge: MIT Press).

 

1966, Sep 17

Lake Huron, Michigan-Ontario Fireball and Airburst (USA, Canada). See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1966JRASC..60..257H  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1966, Nov 17

Leonid Fireball over Table Mountain Observatory (Angeles National Forest, Wrightwood, CA, USA).

See: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap981113.html

 

1967, Feb 5

Vilna Fireball and Airburst (Alberta, Canada).

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1969JRASC..63...61F http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1967, Mar 29

Aten NEA 2019 FB2 (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 21 m), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.52 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.08 LD.                                                                                                    

See: 2019 FB2 - JPL , 2019 FB2 - SSA

 

1967, May 12

Aten NEA 2020 JQ1 (H = 26.0 mag, D ≈ 22 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.30 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.10 LD.

See: 2020 JQ1 – S2P , 2020 JQ1 – JPL

See also: 11 May 1948,  12 May 2039.

 

1967, Jun

The largest know meteorite, the Hoba meteorite, lies on the farm "Hoba West", not far from Grootfontein, in the Otjozondjupa Region of Namibia. It has been uncovered in 1920, but, because of its large mass, has never been moved from where it fell. The main mass is estimated at 54,000 kg, and it is the largest known meteorite (as a single piece) and the most massive naturally-occurring piece of iron known at the Earth's surface. The Hoba meteorite is thought to have landed less than 80,000 years ago. It is inferred that the Earth's atmosphere slowed the object down to the point that it fell to the surface at terminal velocity, thereby remaining intact and causing little excavation. The Hoba meteorite is unusual in that it is flat on both major surfaces, possibly causing it to have skipped across the top of the atmosphere in the way a flat stone skips on water. Size: 2.7 × 2.7 × 0.9 m.

Ref:

- J.D. Fernie, 1967, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 61, 127, "Journey via Otjiwarongo. A trip to the Hoba Meteorite." See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1967JRASC..61..127F  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoba_meteorite  

 

1967, Sep 29

Apollo NEA 440212 (2004 OB, H = 18.9 mag, D ≈ 600 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.35 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.35 LD.                                               

See: 2004 OB - JPL , 2004 OB - SSA

 

1967, Nov 3

Apollo NEA 2014 AA (H = 30.9 mag, D ≈ 2.3 m), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 99.33 LD. Minimum miss distance 89.08 LD.  Impact on 2 January 2014.                                         

See: 2014 AA - SSA , 2014 AA - JPL

See also:

http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/mpec/K14/K14A02.html  http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-001

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_AA

See also: 26 May 1994, 21 Mar 1996, 2 Jan 2014.

 

1968

European Fireball Network established.

Ref:

- P. Spurný, J. Boroviča, L. Shrbený, 2007, in: A. Milani, G.B. Valsecchi & D. Vokrouhlický (eds.), Proc. IAU Symposium No. 236 on Near Earth Objects, our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, Prague (Czech Republic), 14-18 August 2006 (Cambridge: CUP), p. 121, "Automation of the Czech part of the European Fireball Network: equipment, methods and first results."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IAUS..236..121S

See also:

http://www.dlr.de/pf/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-623/1043_read-26813/  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Fireball_Network  

 

1968

C.S. Beals, 1968, Contributions Dominion Observatory Ottawa, 4(29), 1, "Theories of the origin of Hudson Bay. I. On the possibility of a catastrophic origin for the great arc of eastern Hudson Bay."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1968CoDAO...4....1B

 

1968, Jan

G.W. Wetherill, J.G. Williams, 1968, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73, 635, "Evaluation of the Apollo asteroids as sources of stone meteorites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1968JGR....73..635W

 

1968, Mar 14

Apollo NEA 216985 (2000 QK130, H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.53 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.53 LD.                                               

See: 2000 QK130 - JPL , 2000 QK130 - SSA

See also: 12 Mar 1916, 15 Mar 2036, 15 Mar 2089.

 

1968, Apr 23

Apollo NEA 2008 GD110 (H = 24.6 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.60 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.16 LD.

See: 2008 GD110 - JPL , 2008 GD110 - SSA

 

1968, May 15

Aten NEA 2010 JR34 (H = 27.8 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.09 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.91 LD.

See: 2010 JR34 -JPL , 2010 JR34 - SSA

 

1968, Jun 14

Apollo NEA 1566 Icarus (1949 MA, H = 16.3 mag, D = 1300 m, PHA) passed Earth at 16.53 LD. Observed by radar by NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar (CA, USA) and the MIT Haystack Observatory (Westfort, MA, USA).

See:

1949 MA - JPL , 1566 Icarus - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1566_Icarus  

Ref:

- R.M. Goldstein, 1968, Science, 162, 903, "Radar observations of Icarus."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1968Sci...162..903G

- B.G. Marsden, 1998, Boston Sunday Globe, 29 March 1989, "How the asteroid story hit: an astronomer reveals how a discovery spun out of control."

See: http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/iau/pressinfo/1997XF11Globe.html  

See also: 16 Jun 2015, 14 Jun 2090.

 

1968, Nov 30

Apollo NEA 2018 WE3  (H = 21.2 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.28 LD. Minimum miss distance 7.17 LD.

See: 2018 WE3  - SSA , 2018 WE3  - JPL

 

1968, Dec 16

Apollo NEA 2015 XA378  (H = 25.9 mag, D ≈ 23 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.78 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.62 LD.

See: 2015 XA378  - SSA , 2015 XA378  - JPL

See also: 1 June 2053.

 

1968, Dec 28

Aten NEA 2014 YW14 (H = 27.8 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.64 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.60 LD.                                                                                    [1968-01]

See: 2014 YW14 - JPL , 2014 YW14 - SSA

 

1969, Feb 8

Chihuahua Fireball, witnessed falling over the Mexican State of Chihuahua. After breaking up in the atmosphere, an extensive search for pieces was conducted; it is often described as "the best-studied meteorite in history." Some 2000 kg of meteorite material has been collected. The largest piece found, the Allende meteorite of 0.520 kg, is notable for possessing abundant, large calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, which are among the oldest objects formed in the Solar System. The 238U/235U isotope ratio found in the Allende meteorite by Brennecka et al. (2010) implies that the Solar System is some 5 million years younger than thought previously.

See : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allende_meteorite

Ref:

- G.A. Brennecka, S. Weyer, M. Wadhwa, et al., 2010, Science, 327, 449, "238U/235U variations in meteorites: extant 247Cm and implications for Pb-Pb dating."

See: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/327/5964/449

- Chi Ma, O. Tschauner, J.R. Beckett, et al., 2012, American Mineralogist, 97, 1219, "Panguite, (Ti4+,Sc,Al,Mg,Zr,Ca)1.8O3, a new ultra-refractory titania mineral from the Allende meteorite: synchrotron micro-diffraction and EBSD."

See: http://www.its.caltech.edu/~chima/publications/2012_AM_buseckite.pdf

http://media.caltech.edu/press_releases/13524

 

1969, Jul 21

Apollo NEA 2018 BN6 (H = 26.9 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.47 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.96 LD.

See: 2018 BN6 - SSA , 2018 BN6 - JPL

See also: http://iawn.net/

See also: 24 Jan 2018, 25 Jan 2045

 

1969, Aug 27

Apollo NEA 192642 (1999 RD32, H = 16.7 mag, D ≈ 1600 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.63 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.62 LD.

See: 1999 RD32 - JPL , 1999 RD32 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(192642)_1999_RD32

 

1969, Sep 28

Murchison Fireball and Meteorite. Near the town of Murchison (Victoria, Australia), a bright fireball was observed to separate into three fragments before disappearing, leaving a cloud of smoke. About 30 seconds later, a tremor was heard. Many specimens were found over an area larger than 13 km², with individual masses up to 7 kg; one piece, weighing 680 g, broke through a roof. The total collected mass exceeds 100 kg.

Ref:

- P. Schmitt-Kopplin, Z. Gabelica, R.D. Gougeon, et al., 2010, Proc. Nat Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 2763, "High molecular diversity of extraterrestrial organic matter in Murchison meteorite revealed 40 years after its fall."

See: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/02/12/0912157107.abstract

- S. Pizzarello, August 2012, Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 754, L27, "Hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison Meteorite."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...754L..27P

See also:

http://tin.er.usgs.gov/meteor/metbull.php?code=16875  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=murchison-meteorite  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murchison_meteorite

 

1969, Dec

The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition discovered nine meteorites on the blue ice field of the Yamato Mountains in Antarctica, December 1969. This was the first significant recovery of Antarctic meteorites and represented samples of several different types. In 2011, co-researchers from the USA, South Korea and Japan have found in meteorite Yamato 691 a new mineral, dubbed "Wassonite", formed from sulfur and titanium, and possessing a unique crystal structure that has not been previously observed in nature.

Ref:

- T. Nagata, 30 June 1976, Meteoritics, 11, 181, "Yamato meteorites collected in Antarctica in 1969." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976Metic..11..181N  http://www.nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/wassonite.html  

 

1970, Jan 1

27 NEAs known, of which 10 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1970

First infrared diameter of an asteroid measured: 4 Vesta (H = 3.40 mag, D = 530 km, Main-belt asteroid).

See: Vesta - JPL , 4 Vesta - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4_Vesta

Ref:

- D.A. Allen, 1970, Nature, 227, 158, "Infrared diameter of Vesta." See: http://nature.com/nature/journal/v227/n5254/abs/227158a0.html   

 

1970, Jan 3

Lost City Fireball. Four stations (Hominy OK, Woodward OK, Pleasanton KS, and Garden City KS) of the Prairie Meteorite Network simultaneously photographed the track of a meteoroid fireball. Analysis of the photographs indicated that a meteorite might have landed within an area east of Lost City (OK, USA). This was the first time in the US that simultaneous photography of a fireball from multiple observation points was achieved, making it possible to calculate a trajectory and delimit a search area on the ground. Six days later, a 9.83 kg (21.6 pound) meteorite was spotted sitting in a snow-covered dirt road within one-half mile of Lost City. Three additional smaller meteorite fragments were recovered later (272 g, 640 g, 6.6 kg).

Ref:

- Z. Ceplecha, 1996, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 311, 329, "Luminous efficiency based on photographic observations of the Lost City fireball and implications for the influx of interplanetary bodies onto Earth."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996A%26A...311..329C  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_City,_Oklahoma

 

1970, Jan 24

C.S. Beals, 1970, Nature, 225, 368, "Impact craters and the relative ages of Earth and Moon."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970Natur.225..368B

 

1970, Jan 31

Aten NEA 2006 AM4 (H = 21.7 mag, D ≈ 160 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.18 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.17 LD.

See: 2006 AM4  - SSA , 2006 AM4  - JPL

 

1970, Feb 26

Apollo NEA 2019 DS1 (H = 25.6 mag, D ≈ 26 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.94 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.93 LD.                                                                                     [1970-01]

See: 2019 DS1 - SSA , 2019 DS1  - JPL

See also: 26 Feb 2082.

 

1970, Mar 27

Apollo NEA 215588 (2003 HF2, H = 19.3 mag, D ≈ 490 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.02 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.02 LD.

See: 2003 HF2 - JPL , 2003 HF2 - SSA

 

1970, May 7

Apollo NEA 2019 JJ3 (H = 27.5 mag, D ≈ 11 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.96 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.43 LD.

See: 2019 JJ3 – SSA , 2019 JJ3 – JPL

See also: 13 May 2095.

 

1970, Oct

C.J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, P. Herget & T. Gehrels, 1970, Astronomy & Astrophysics Suppl., 2, 339, "The Palomar-Leiden Survey of faint Minor Planets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970A%26AS....2..339  

 

1971, Jan 22

Aten NEA 2020 BP8 (H = 25.6 mag, D ≈ 28 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.14 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.88 LD.

See: 2020 BP8 – S2P , 2020 BP8 – JPL

 

1971, Feb 4

Aten NEA 2016 CE  (H = 28.7 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.86 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.58 LD.                                                                                    [1971-01]

See: 2016 CE - JPL , 2016 CE - SSA

See also: 5 Feb 2056.

 

1971, Mar 6-10

IAU Colloquium No. 12 on Physical Studies of Minor Planets, Tucson (AZ, USA), 6-10 March 1971. Proceedings: T. Gehrels (ed.), 1971, NASA SP-267, "Physical studies of minor planets." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1971NASSP.267.....G

 

1971, Mar 24

Aten NEA 234145 (2000 EW70, H = 21.9 mag, D ≈ 344 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.61 LD.                                               

See: 2000 EW70 - JPL , 2000 EW70 - SSA

See also: 24 Mar 1961.

 

1971, Apr 2

Aten NEA 2015 FA285 (H = 26.7 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.81 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.73 LD.

See: 2015 FA285 - JPL , 2015 FA285 - SSA

 

1971, Apr 3

Aten NEA 2014 GC49 (H = 28.9 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.04 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.64 LD.

See: 2014 GC49 - JPL , 2014 GC49 - SSA

 

1971, Apr 11

Apollo NEA 2002 JE9 (H = 21.2 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.62 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.59 LD.                                                              [1971-02]

See: 2002 JE9 - JPL , 2002 JE9 - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_JE9

See also: 10 Apr 1927.

 

1971, May 22

Apollo NEA 2017 WL15 (H = 25.8 mag, D ≈ 24 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.58 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.50 LD.

See: 2017 WL15 - JPL , 2017 WL15 - SSA

 

1971, May 23

Apollo NEA 2020 KQ4 (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 18 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.71 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.63 LD.                                                                                    

See: 2020 KQ4 – S2P , 2020 KQ4 – JPL

See also: 24 May 2031.

 

1971, Jul 20

Apollo NEA 2002 BF25 (H = 22.2 mag, D ≈ 152 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.66 LD. Minimum miss distance 7.66 LD.

See: 2002 BF25 - SSA , 2002 BF25 - JPL

See also: 20 Jul 2020.

 

1971, Oct 2

Apollo NEA 2008 TC3 (H = 30.3 mag, D 4.1 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 15.26 LD. Minimum miss distance 14.01 LD. 

See: 2008 TC3 - JPL , 2008 TC3 - SSA

See also: 4 Oct 1917, 11 Oct 1961, 27 Jan 1988, 6 Oct 2008.

 

1972

V.L. Masajtis, M.V. Mikhajlov, T.V. Selivanovskaya, 1972, Meteoritics, 7(1), 39, "The Popigay meteorite crater."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972IGRv...14..327M

 

1972

V.L. Masaitis, M.V. Mikhailov, T.V. Selivanovskaya, 1972, Int. Geol. Rev., 14, 327, "Popigai Basin -- an explosion meteorite crater."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972Metic...7...39M

 

1972, Mar

D.J. Milton, B.C. Barlow, R. Brett, et al., 1972, Science, 175, 1199, "Gosses Bluff impact structure, Australia."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972Sci...175.1199M  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gosses_Bluff_crater

 

1972, Jul 12

Apollo NEA 2020 BD1 (H = 27.4 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.49 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.49 LD.                                                                                    [1972-01]

See: 2020 BD1 – S2P , 2020 BD1 – JPL                                                                                                                                                                 

 

1972, Aug 6

Apollo NEA 2018 LB1 (H = 20.2 mag, D ≈ 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.70 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.58 LD.

See: 2018 LB1 - JPL , 2018 LB1 - SSA

 

1972, Aug 10

Great Daylight 1972 Fireball (US19720810), Earth-grazing asteroid, estimated D ≈ 3-14 m, 100-sec passage with 15 km/s through the Earth atmosphere, 57 km high over the Rocky Mountains from Utah (USA) to Alberta (Canada). Co-inciding with the annual Perseid meteor shower. Suggestions that this object is still in an Earth crossing orbit around the Sun and passed close to the Earth again in August 1997 have not been substantiated (Spahr, 2010, private communication).

Ref:

- R.D. Rawcliffe, C.D. Bartky, F. Li, et al., 1974, Nature, 247, 449, "Meteor of August 10, 1972."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1974Natur.247..449R

- E.J. Öpik, 1974, Irish Astronomical Journal, 11, 165, "A meteorite that got away."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1974IrAJ...11..165O  

- A.C. Clarke, 1993, in preface of his novel The Hammer of God (New York: Bantam Books).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hammer_of_God  

- E. Tagliaferri, 1998, Mercury, Vol. 27, no. 6, p. 18, "Observation of meteoroid impacts by space-based sensors."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Mercu..27f..18T  

- Z. Ceplecha, 1994, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 283, 287, "Earth-grazing daylight fireball of August 10, 1972."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994A%26A...283..287C

See also: http://web.archive.org/web/20050120051405/www.maa.agleia.de/Comet/Other/1972.html  

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap090302.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Daylight_1972_Fireball  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth-grazing_fireball

 

1972, Oct 2

R.J. Ford, 1972, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 16, 228, "A possible impact crater associated with Darwin glass."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972E&PSL..16..228F

See also:

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn24560-meteor-impact-trapped-ancient-swamp-plants-in-glass.html#.UpZU6rB3tdg

 

1973, Jan

Eleanor F. Helin and Eugene M. Shoemaker begin photographic NEO searches using Palomar 46 cm (18 inch) telescope: the Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey (PCAS), 1973 – 1978. They took photographic plates 3 nights each month till 1978 and found first Earth orbit crosser: Apollo NEA 5496 (1973 NA, H = 15.9 mag, D 2.73 km) on 4 July 1973.

See: 1973 NA - JPL , 5496 1973 NA - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(5496)_1973_NA

Ref:

- E.F. Helin, E.M. Shoemaker, 1979, Icarus, 40, 321, "The Palomar Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey, 1973 – 1978."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979Icar...40..321H  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planet-Crossing_Asteroid_Survey

 

1973, Jan 17

Aten NEA 2009 BH2 (H = 22.3 mag, D ≈ 130 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.88 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.20 LD.

See: 2009 BH2 - JPL , 2009 BH2 - SSA

 

1973, Feb

J.K. Bjorkman, 1973, Meteoritics, 8, 91, "Meteors and meteorites in the ancient Near East."

See: http://adsbit.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?bibcode=1973Metic...8...91B&db_key=AST&page_ind=0&plate_select=NO&data_type=GIF&type=SCREEN_GIF&classic=YES .

 

1973, Mar 13

Discovery of Amor NEA 1943 Anteros (1973 EC, H = 15.9 mag, D ≈ 2480 m).

See: 1973 EC - JPL , 1973 EC - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1943_Anteros

See also: 6 February 2015, 23 May 2038, 20 May 2050.

 

1973, Sep 18

Aten NEA 2017 RX2 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.81 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.50 LD.

See: 2017 RX2 - JPL , 2017 RX2 - SSA

 

1973, Oct

P.D. Zimmerman, G.W. Wetherill, 1973, Science, 182, 51, "Asteroidal source of meteorites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1973Sci...182...51Z  

 

1973, Dec 19

Aten NEA 2017 YO3 (H = 28.2 mag, D ≈ 8 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.43 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.63 LD.

See: 2017 YO3 - JPL , 2017 YO3 - SSA

See also: 20 Dec 2064.

 

1974, Feb 12

Aten NEA 2017 CP32 (H = 23.8 mag, D ≈ 60 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.51 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.39 LD.

See: 2017 CP32 - JPL , 2017 CP32 - SSA

See also: 12 Feb 2061.

 

1974, Mar 16

Apollo NEA 2012 EN5 (H = 27.5 mag, D ≈ 11 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.10 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.31 LD.

See: 2012 EN5 -JPL , 2012 EN5 - SSA

 

1974, May 7

Apollo NEA 2014 HB177 (H = 28.4 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.92 LD. Minimum miss distance  0.0059 LD (= 0.36 REarth from the geocenter).               [1974-01]

See: 2014 HB177 - JPL , 2014 HB177 - SSA

See also: 6 May 2014, 6 May 2034.

 

1974, Oct 5

Apollo NEA 2018 CC1 (H = 23.5 mag, D ≈ 70 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.95 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.89 LD.

See: 2018 CC1 - JPL , 2018 CC1 - SSA

 

1974, Dec 16

Apollo NEA 3200 Phaethon (1983 TB, H = 14.4 mag, D 5100 ± 200 m, PHA, causing the annual Geminids meteor shower) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 21.30 LD (= 0.05 au). Minimum miss distance 21.30 LD.

See: 3200 Phaethon - SSA , 1983 TB - JPL

Ref:

- T. Kasuga, J.-I. Watanabe, M. Sato, 2006, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 373, 1107, "Benefits of an impact mission to 3200 Phaethon: nature of the extinct comet and artificial meteor shower."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MNRAS.373.1107K  

See also:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7030

https://phys.org/news/2017-12-arecibo-radar-asteroid-phaethon-images.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3200_Phaethon

See also: https://www.space.com/42236-weird-blue-asteroid-phaethon.html

See also: 16 Dec 2017, 14 Dec 2093.

 

1975

G.W. Wetherill, 1975, in: Proc. 6th Lunar Science Conference, Houston (TX, USA), 17-21 March 1975, Vol. 2 (New York: Pergamon Press, Inc.), p. 1539, "Late heavy bombardment of the moon and terrestrial planets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975LPSC....6.1539W  

 

1975, Jan 14

Aten NEA 2018 AS2 (H = 28.6 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.37 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.24 LD.

See: 2018 AS2 - JPL , 2018 AS2 - SSA

 

1975, Jan 23

Amor NEA 433 Eros (A898 PA, H = 10.3 mag, D = 34.4 × 11.2 × 11.2 km, orbital P = 1.76 yr), passed Earth at 59 LD (= 0.15 AU).

See: 433 Eros - JPL , 433 Eros - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/433_Eros

See also: 13 Aug 1898, 31 Jan 2012.

 

1975, Jan 31

Apollo NEA 27002 (1998 DV9, H = 18.2 mag, D ≈ 700 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.76 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.76 LD.

See: 1998 DV9 - JPL , 1998 DV9 - SSA

 

1975, Mar 25

Aten NEA 2012 FT35 (H = 29.5 mag, D ≈ 4 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.83 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.94 LD.

See: 2012 FT35 - JPL , 2012 FT35 - SSA

See also: 29 Mar 1925.

 

1975, Apr 19

Apollo NEA 2018 HW1 (H = 25.8 mag, D ≈ 25 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.54 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.63 LD.                                                                                    

See: 2018 HW1 – SSA , 2018 HW1 - JPL

See also: 21 Apr 2018, 24 Apr 2041.

 

1975, Apr 24

Apollo NEA 2019 GT1 (H = 24.8 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.65 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.93 LD.

See: 2019 GT1 - JPL , 2019 GT1 - SSA

 

1975, Apr 26

Apollo NEA 2020 HF5 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 16 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.24 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.11 LD.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

See: 2020 HF5 – S2P , 2020 HF5 - JPL

See also: http://iawn.net/

See also: 22 Apr 2020, 26 Apr 2079.

 

1975, Sep

A. Ben-Menahem, 1975, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 11, 1, "Source parameters of the Siberian explosion of June 30, 1908, from analysis and synthesis of seismic signals at four stations."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975PEPI...11....1B

 

1975, Nov 11

Apollo NEA 2008 XA2 (H = 21.6 mag, D ≈ 170 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.25 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.25 LD.                                                                                    

See: 2008 XA2 - SSA , 2008 XA2 - JPL

 

1976

D. Morrison, 1976, Astronomy, 4, no. 6, p. 6, "Asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976Ast.....4f...6M  

 

1976, Jan 7

First discovery of an Earth orbit crossing Aten NEA: 2062 Aten (1976 AA, H = 17.2 mag, D = 1300 m), by Eleanor F. Helin (1932 – 2009, USA).

See: 1976 AA - JPL , 2062 Aten - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2062_Aten

Ref:

- E.F. Helin, E.M. Shoemaker, 1977, Icarus, 31, 415, "Discovery of asteroid 1976 AA".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1977Icar...31..415H  

 

1976, Jan 16

Apollo NEA 2008 RM98 (H = 20.8 mag, D ≈ 250 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.18 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.17 LD.

See: 2008 RM98 - JPL , 2008 RM98 - SSA

 

1976, Jan 28

Gujarat Brilliant Fireball and Dhajala Meteorite Shower, India.

Ref:

- N. Bhandari, D. Lal, J.R. Trivedi, 1976, Meteoritics, 11, 137, "The Dhajala meteorite shower."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976Metic..11..137B

 

1976, Mar 8

Jilin Meteorite Shower, near Jilin City (Jilin Province, China), had a dispersion ellipse of 72 × 8.5 km and landed over 100 fragments with a total mass > 2700 kg. The largest of these fragments weighs 1770 kg and presents the largest stony meteorite known.

Ref:

- K. Yau, P. Weissman, D. Yeomans, 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 864, "Meteorite falls in China and some related human casualty events."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..864Y  http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/J/Jilin.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteorite_fall   

 

1976, Mar 29

Apollo NEA 2014 GY44 (H = 25.7 mag, D ≈ 26 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.19 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.17 LD.

See: 2014 GY44 - JPL , 2014 GY44 - SSA

 

1976, Jun 7

Apollo NEA 2019 LW4  (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.09 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.97 LD.                                                                                                                                                                         

See: 2019 LW4 - SSA , 2019 LW4 - JPL

See also: http://iawn.net/

See also: 8 Jun 2019, 9 Jun 2074.

 

1976, Oct 17

Aten NEA 2013 UG1 (H = 22.5 mag, D ≈ 110 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.85 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.85 LD.                                                                                     [1976-01]

See: 2013 UG1 - JPL , 2013 UG1 - SSA

See also: 17 Oct 2065.

 

1976, Oct 20

Aten NEA 2340 Hathor (1976 UA, H = 20.5 mag, D ≈ 210 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.02 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.02 LD.                                              

See: 1976 UA - JPL , 1976 UA - SSA

See also: 20 Oct 1921, 21 Oct 2069, 21 Oct. 2086.

 

1976, Dec

Z. Ceplecha, R.E. McCrosky, 1976, Journal of Geophysical Research, 81, 6257, "Fireball end h eights – a diagnostic for the structure of meteoric material."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976JGR....81.6257C

 

1976, Dec 27

Aten NEA 2010 XC15 (H = 21.6 mag, D ≈ 170 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.43 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.43 LD.

See: 2010 XC15 - JPL , 2010 XC15 - SSA

See also: 26 Dec 1907, 27 Dec 1914, 27 Dec 2022, 28 Dec 2059, 26 Dec 2064, 26 Dec 2096.

 

1977, Jan 29

Apollo NEA 292220 (2006 SU49, H = 19.7 mag, D ≈ 400 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.87 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.86 LD.

See: 2006 SU49 - JPL , 2006 SU49 - SSA

See also: 30 Jan 1982, 28 Jan 2029.

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(292220)_2006_SU49

 

1977, Apr 11

Apollo NEA 2011 UH20 (H = 21.1 mag, D ≈ 220 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.57 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.57 LD.

See: 2011 UH20 - JPL , 2011 UH20 - SSA

See also: 11 Apr 1906.

 

1977, May 7

Apollo NEA 2018 VO6 (H = 24.3 mag, D ≈ 50 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.86 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.60 LD.                                                                                     

See: 2007 VO6 - SSA , 2007 VO6 - JPL

See also: 7 May 2058, 8 May 2063.

 

1977, Sep 13

Apollo NEA 2012 EP10 (H = 29.2 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.52 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.21 LD.

See: 2012 EP10 - JPL , 2012 EP10 - SSA

 

1977, Oct 13

Apollo NEA 2011 GA (H = 21.2 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.70 LD. Minimum miss distance 9.70 LD.

See: 2011 GA - JPL , 2011 GA - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_GA

 

1977, Oct 20

Apollo NEA 2020 FN3 (H = 24.5 mag, D ≈ 50 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.19 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.66 LD.

See: 2020 FN3 – S2P , 2020 FN3 – JPL

See also: 3 Apr 2075.

 

1978

C.R. Chapman, J.G. Williams, W.K. Hartmann, 1978, Annual Review of Astronomy & Astrophysics, 16, 33, "The asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978ARA%26A..16...33C

 

1978

L'. Kresák, 1978, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 29, 103, "Passages of comets and asteroids near the earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978BAICz..29..103K

 

1978

L'. Kresák, 1978, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 29, 114, "The comet and asteroid population of the earth's environment."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978BAICz..29..114K

 

1978

L'. Kresák, 1978, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 29, 149, "The total number of the Apollo asteroids and their chance rediscoveries."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978BAICz..29..149K

 

1978

B.L. Narendra, 1978, Discovery 13(1), 10, "The Peabody Museum meteorite collection: a historic account."

See:

http://peabody.yale.edu/collections/meteorites-and-planetary-science/weston-meteorite 

http://peabody.yale.edu/collections/meteorites-and-planetary-science/wethersfield-meteorite

 

1978

G.L. Verschuur, 1978, Cosmic Catastrophes (Reading, MA, USA: Addison-Wesley Publ. Co.).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978coca.book.....V

 

1978, Jan 28

Aten NEA 2019 BE5 (H = 25.2 mag, D ≈ 30 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.20 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.41 LD.

See: 2019 BE5 - JPL , 2019 BE5 - SSA

See also: 28 Jan 1988, 28 Jan 2029.

 

1978, Apr 1

IAU Minor Planet Center moved to Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge (MA, USA). Brian G. Marsden, director. Up to this time, the set of numbered minor planets had increased to 2060, with nearly 180,000 observations in the archive.

See: http://www.oaa.gr.jp/~oaacs/mp/BriefHistoryofMPCbyConradBardwell.pdf 

http://www.iau.org/static/publications/IB104.pdf  , p. 67.

 

1978, May 20 02:43

Apollo NEA 2017 KY4 (H = 24.5 mag, D ≈ 40 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.50 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.77 LD.

See: 2017 KY4 - JPL , 2017 KY4 - SSA

 

1978, May 20 12:48

Aten NEA 2011 UD21 (H = 28.8 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.24 LD.

See: 2011 UD21 - JPL , 2011 UD21 - SSA

 

1978, Jul 1

Apollo NEA 436724 (2011 UW158, H = 20.0 mag, D ≈ 600 x 300 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.68 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.67 LD.

See: 2011 UW158 - JPL , 2011 UW158 - SSA

See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(436724)_2011_UW158

See also: 2 Jul 2108.

 

1978, Sep

E. Bowell, C.R. Chapman, J.C. Grady, D. Morrison, B. Zellner, 1978, Icarus, 35, 313, "Taxonomy of asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978Icar...35..313B

 

1978, Oct 20

Apollo NEA 2017 UJ2 (H = 31.0 mag, D ≈ 2.2 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.16 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.40 LD.

See: 2017 UJ2 - SSA , 2017 UJ2 - JPL

http://iawn.net/  

See also: 20 Oct 2017, 30 Oct 2030.