NEAR EARTH ASTEROIDS (NEAs)

A CHRONOLOGY OF MILESTONES 1800 - 2200

 

Courtesy of Karel A. van der Hucht

version 71.0 – 01 Semprember 2017

The NEO Chronology is regularly updated  (no claim on completeness). For the meaning of the technical terms used, see here

 

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 NEAR EARTH OBJECTS – MILE STONES

Introduction

 

An asteroid is coined a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) when its trajectory brings it within 1.3 AU from the Sun. A NEA is said to be a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) when its orbit comes to within 0.05 AU (= 19.5 LD = 7.5 million km) of the Earth's orbit and has a measured absolute magnitude H < 22 mag (i.e., an estimated diameter D > 140 m).

 

As of 31 August 2017, 16490 NEAs are known, including 7777 NEAs with D > 140, and  881 NEAs with D > 1 km (estimated population: 966 ± 50). Of these large NEAs, 157 are PHAs.

See:

https://www.nasa.gov/planetarydefense/overview

https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/

http://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/totals.html  

http://neo.ssa.esa.int/neo-home

 

The NEA chronology lists

(a) data of known NEAs with past nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD;

(b) data of known NEAs with future nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 10.00 LD

      and minimum close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD;

(c) scientific literature, conferences and other milestones on NEA research.

The NEA Chronology is updated monthly and can be downloaded as pdf file.

 

Information on categories (a) and (b) is quoted from both the ESA NEO Coordination Centre Close Approach Tables and the NASA JPL CNEOS Close Approach Tables for the period 1900  – 2200 A.D., as of 1 September 2017.

By listing in chronological order this broad selection of milestones of NEA research, a global impression is offered of what has been done and has happened, and what is being done and will happen in those fields, as far as presently known.

 

By 30 August 2017, the NEA Chronology lists 3347 entries of known past events registered since AD 1800, including 368 close approaches of NEAs ranging in size from 1 to 325 m with nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD (about 30 NEAs per year in recent years; 53 in 2016; to date 27 in 2017), 22 of which with d ≤ 0.10 LD. Moreover, there where four recorded impacts, in 1908, 2008, 2013, and 2014.

 

By 30 August 2017, the NEA Chronology lists 264 entries of known future events predicted up to AD 2200, of which 155 predicted close approaches of NEAs with nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 10.00 LD and minimum close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD (i.e., about one per year), including 31 predicted close approaches of NEAs with nominal Earth close approach distances d ≤ 1.00 LD, three of which with d ≤ 0.10 LD.

 

Sources

http://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/ca/   

http://neo.ssa.esa.int/close-approaches   

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html 

On the conversion of magnitude H  into estimated diameter D, see also:

A.W. Harris, G. D’Abramo, 2015, Icarus, 257, 302,

"The population of near-Earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..257..302H .

 

Colour coding

red bold italics            spacecraft

green bold                   asteroid, meteorite, impact site

blue bold                     NEA related institute, observatory, organization, program

blue bold italics          NEA related conference, workshop, seminar, meeting

purple bold                  Potentially Hazardous Asteroid

 

 

NEA CHRONOLOGY 1800 - 2200

 

1801, Jan 1

First and largest asteroid discovered, 1 Ceres (H = 3.34 mag, D = 975 km, main-belt asteroid), by Giuseppe Piazzi (1746 – 1826, Italy) at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo. Asteroid Cerere Ferdinandea was named in honour of King Ferdinand IV of Sicily, and later became known simply as Ceres. Carl Gauss developed the math to determine an accurate orbit for Ceres and published his results in November 1801. Given the definition of planets and dwarfplanets accepted by the IAU XXVI General Assembly in 2006, Ceres is considered a dwarf planet rather than an asteroid.

See: Ceres - JPL , 1 Ceres - SSA

Ref:

- G. Piazzi, 1802, Della scoperta del nuovo planeta Cerere Ferdinandea (Palermo: Nella Stamperia Reale).

See: https://archive.org/details/DellaScopertaDelNuovoPianetaCerereFerdinandea

See also:

http://www.space.com/12969-giant-asteroid-ceres-telescopes-skywatching.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceres_(dwarf_planet)

More recently:

Since 6 March 2015, NASA spacecraft Dawn is in orbit around Ceres. See:

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4503

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4540

 

1803, 26 Apr

L'Aigle Meteorite. In the early afternoon of 26 April 1803 a meteorite shower of more than 3000 fragments fell upon the town of L'Aigle (Normandy, France).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L'Aigle_(meteorite)

 

1807, Dec 14

Weston Meteorite. At 6:30 hr on the morning of 14 December 1807, a blazing fireball about two-thirds the size of the Moon was seen traveling southwards by early risers in Vermont and Massachusetts (USA). Three loud explosions were heard over the town of Weston in Fairfield County, Connecticut. Stone fragments fell in at least 6 places.

See:

http://peabody.yale.edu/collections/meteorites-and-planetary-science/weston-meteorite  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weston_meteorite

 

1840, Jun 12

Uden Meteorite (Netherlands). A 0.6 kg meteorite was found. See:

http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/DL/publications/PU00015500.pdf  http://www.sterrenkunde.nl/index/encyclopedie/meteoren.html

 

1843, Jun 2

Blauwkapel Meteorite (Netherlands). Two pieces were found, of 2.7 and 7 kg. See: http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/DL/publications/PU00015500.pdf  http://www.sterrenkunde.nl/index/encyclopedie/meteoren.html

 

1859, Nov 15

New York City Fireball and Airburst (USA).

See:

http://www.meteoritehistory.info/AJS/S2VIEWS/V30P186.HTM  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1860, Jul 20

The Meteor Procession of 20 July 1860, visible from the Great Lakes to New York State (USA), continuing out over the Atlantic Ocean.

Ref:

- Walt Whitman, 1859-1860, in Leaves of Grass, "Year of Meteors.";

- A.G. Pope, 5-1-2010, Astronomical dating of Edvard Munch's summer sky paintings, University Honors Program, Texas State University;

- R. Sinnott, 2010, Sky & Telescope, 7 June 2010, "Walt Whitman's "Meteor-Procession"."

See: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/95765719.html

- D.W. Olson, R.L Doescher, M.S. Olson, A.G. Pope,  2010,  Sky & Telescope, 120, No.1, July 2010, p. 28, "Walt Whitman's "Year of Meteors"."

See: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/95765719.html  

http://philosophyofscienceportal.blogspot.com/2010/06/walt-whitman-wrote-about-strange-huge.html  http://www.txstate.edu/news/news_releases/news_archive/2010/06/YearOfMeteors060110.html  

http://www.newscientist.com/gallery/whitman-mystery-solved/3  http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/culturelab/2010/06/the-forensic-astronomer-donald-olson.html  http://cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/06/02/4448882-150-year-old-meteor-mystery-solved  

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap100722.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth-grazing_fireball

 

1864, May 14

Orgueil Meteorite rain over Orgueil (Southern France). Some 20 stones fell over an area of several square kilometers, with a total weight of 14 kg.

Ref:

- M. Gounelle, P. Spurný, P.A. Bland, 2006, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41, 135, "The orbit and atmospheric trajectory of the Orgueil meteorite from historical records."

See: http://www.springerlink.com/content/m470723364612j6x/

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orgueil_(meteorite)

 

1868, July 11

Main-belt asteroid 100 Hekate (H = 7.66 mag, D = 123 km) discovered by James C. Watson (1838 – 1880) at Ann Arbor (MI, USA). 100th numbered asteroid in the data base of the IAU Minor Planet Center, Cincinnati Observatory (Ohio, USA).

See: 100 Hekate - JPL , 100 Hekate - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_Hekate

 

1873, Oct 27

Diepenveen Meteorite Fall, Diepenveen (the Netherlands).

See: http://www.naturalis.nl/en/news/collectie-2/new-dutch-meteorite-fell-1873/

 

1890, May 2

Forest City Meteorite Fall, Forest City (Iowa, USA), 2 May 1890. Ref:

- H.H. Nininger, 1942, Popular Astronomy, 50, 111, "A celestial bomb."

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteorite_falls

 

1891, Dec 22

First photographic discovery of an asteroid, 323 Brucia (H = 9.53 mag, D = 35.8 km), by Maximilian F.J.C. Wolf (1863 – 1932) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Heidelberg, Germany).

See: Brucia - JPL  , Brucia - SSA  

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/323_Brucia

 

1893

G.K. Gilbert (1893) suggested impacts as most likely process for forming lunar craters.

Ref:

- G.K. Gilbert, 1893, Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, 12, 241, "The Moon’s face: a study of the origin of its features."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1893QB591.G46......

 

1896, Feb 2

Great Madrid Meteor Event.

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1896PASP....8...86C  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelyabinsk_meteor

 

1898, Aug 13

First discovery of a NEA: asteroid 433 Eros (1898 DQ, H = 10.3 mag, D = 34.4 × 11.2 × 11.2 km, orbital P = 1.76 yr, Amor asteroid), by Carl Gustav Witt (1866 – 1948) at the Urania Sternwarte Berlin (Germany), and independently by Auguste Charlois (1864 – 1910) at the Observatoire de Nice (France). Second-largest NEA known. Its perihelion distance of 1.133 AU brings it with 0.15 AU of the orbit of the Earth.

See: 1898 DQ - JPL , 433 Eros - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/433_Eros

Ref:

- P. Michel, P. Farinella, Ch. Froeschlé, 1996, Nature, 380, 689, "The orbital evolution of the asteroid Eros and implications for collision with the Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Natur.380..689M  

See also: http://www.oaa.gr.jp/~oaacs/mp/BriefHistoryofMPCbyConradBardwell.pdf  

See also: 23 Jan 1975, 31 Jan 2012.

 

1899, Mar 12

Helsinki Fireball and Airburst (Finland).

See:

http://www.somerikko.net/collection/meteorites.php?id=374  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1900, Jan 1

1 NEA known.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1900, Jan 29

Asteroid 4660 Nereus (1982 DB, H = 18.3 mag, D ≈ 510 x 330 240 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal distance of 8.09 LD. Minimum distance 8.08 LD.

See: 1982 DB - JPL , 4660 Nereus - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4660_Nereus

Ref:

- M. Brozovic, S.J. Ostro, L.A.M. Benner, et al., 2009, Icarus, 201, 153, "Radar observations and a physical model of asteroid 4660 Nereus, a prime space mission target."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Icar..201..153B  

- K. Kitazato, S. Abe, M. Ishiguro, et al., October 2012, American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #44, #210.20, "Measuring the YORP effect of asteroid 4660 Nereus." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DPS....4421020K

See also: 22 Jan 2002, 11 Dec 2021, 14 Feb 2060, 4 Feb 2071, 23 Dec 2112, and 4 Feb 2166.

 

1901, Jun 7

Asteroid 2014 HQ124 (H = 18.9 mag, D ≈ 370 m, PHA), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.96 LD. Minimum miss distance 5.88 LD.

See: 2014 HQ124 - JPL , 2014 HQ124 - SSA

See also:

https://www.google.nl/#q=asteroid+2014+hq124

See also: 7 Jun 1952, 8 Jun 2014, 8 Jun 2065.

 

1901, Aug 14

Asteroid 2011 DS (H = 26.9 mag, D ≈ 17 m), passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.94 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.73 LD.

See: 2011 DS - JPL , 2011 DS - SSA

 

1905

C. Flammarion, 1905, L'Astronomie, 19, 309, "Si quelque jour la vertu disparaissait de la Terre, il serait convenable de la retrouver au ciel."

See: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k96408857

 

1905, Jun 27

Asteroid 25143 Itokawa (1998 SF36, H = 19.5 mag, D = 520 × 270 × 230 m, M = 3.6 × 1010 kg, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.50 LD. Minimum miss distance 4.50 LD.

See: 1998 SF36 - JPL , 25143 Itokawa - SSA

See also: 26 Jun 2004, 9 Apr 2167.

 

1907, Apr 13

Asteroid 99942 Apophis (2004 MN4, H = 19.7 mag, D = 310 ± 30  m, orbital P = 0.89 yr, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 11.15 LD. Minimum miss distance 11.02 LD.

See: 2004 MN4 - JPL , 99942 Apophis - SSA

See also:

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Herschel_intercepts_asteroid_Apophis  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/99942_Apophis

See also: 14 Apr 1949, 14 Apr 1998, 13 Apr 2029, 23 Mar 2036.

 

1907, Dec 26

Asteroid 2010 XC15 (H = 21.4 mag, D ≈ 222 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.12 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.47 LD.

See: 2010 XC15 - JPL , 2010 XC15 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_XC15  

See also: 27 Dec 2022.

 

1908, Jun 30

Tunguska event, Siberia (Russia). According to Boslough & Crawford (2008), possibly an asteroid with D ≈ 30 – 50 m, exploding in an airburst with E ≈ 4 megaton TNT at an altitude of ~8.5 km, flattening ~2000 km2 of forest.

Ref:

- L.A. Kulik, 1938, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets, 3, 78, "The meteorite of June 30, 1908, in Central Siberia."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1938ASPL....3...78K  

- A. Ben-Menahem, September 1975, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 11, 1, "Source parameters of the Siberian explosion of June 30, 1908, from analysis and synthesis of seismic signals at four stations."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975PEPI...11....1B

- L'. Kresak, 1978, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 29, 129, "The Tunguska object – a fragment of Comet Encke?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978BAICz..29..129K  

- R.P. Turco, O.B. Toon, C. Park, et al., 1981, Science,  214, 19, "Tunguska meteor fall of 1908 – effects on stratospheric ozone." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Sci...214...19T

- Z. Sekanina, 1983, Astronomical Journal, 88, 1382, "The Tunguska event – no cometary signature in evidence." Erratum, 1984, Astronomical Journal, 89, 185.

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983AJ.....88.1382S  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984AJ.....89..185S  

- C.F. Chyba, 1993, Astronomy, 21, no.12, p.38, "Death from the sky."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Ast....21R..38C  

- C.F. Chyba, P.J. Thomas, K.J. Zahnle, 7 January 1993, Nature, 361, 40, "The 1908 Tunguska explosion: atmospheric disruption of a stony asteroid."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.361...40C  

- R.A. Gallant, 1994, Sky & Telescope, 87, no. 6, p. 38, "Journey to Tunguska."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994S%26T....87...38G

- P. Farinella, L. Foschini, Ch. Froeschlé, 2001, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 377, 1081, "Probable asteroidal origin of the Tunguska cosmic body."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001A%26A...377.1081F  

- K. Zahnle, 1996, Nature, 383, 674, "Tunguska: leaving no stone unburned." See: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v383/n6602/pdf/383674a0.pdf

- N.V. Vasilyev, Feb-Mar 1998, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 129, "The Tunguska Meteorite problem today."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46..129V

- G. Longo, 2007, in: P. Bobrowsky & H. Rickman (eds.), 2007, Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society (Berlin: Springer), p. 304, "The Tunguska event."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007caih.book.....B  

- D.I. Steel, 2008, Nature, 453, 1157, "Tunguska at 100."

See: http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080625/full/4531157a.html  

M.B.E. Boslough, D.A. Crawford, 2008, Intern. J. of Impact Engineering, 35, 1441, "Low-altitude airbursts and the impact threat." See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0734743X08001784  http://www.sandia.gov/ldrd/images/Posters/Boslough_Poster.pdf  

- B. Napier, D. Asher, 2009, Astronomy & Geophysics, 50, 1.18, "The Tunguska impact event and beyond." See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0734743X08001784  

- V. Rubtsov, 10 March 2013, e-print arXiv:1302.6273, "Reconstruction of the Tunguska Event of 1908: neither an asteroid, nor a comet core."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013arXiv1302.6273R  

See also:

http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=179  http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1818757,00.html http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap111002.html  

https://sputniknews.com/analysis/20080626112250936/

https://sputniknews.com/science/201701181049718416-tunguska-event-lake-cheko/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunguska_event

 

1908, Dec 16

Asteroid 33342 (1998 WT24, H = 17.8 mag, D ≈ 415 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.54 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.54 LD.

See: 1998 WT24 - JPL , 1998 WT24 - SSA

See also:

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/1998wt24.html  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast14dec_1/   http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4800

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(33342)_1998_WT24

See also: 16 Dec 1956, 16 Dec 2001, 11 Dec 2015, 18 Dec 2099.

 

1909, Aug 28

Asteroid 2016 QA2, H = 25.9 mag, D ≈ 27 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.83 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.49 LD.

See: 2016 QA2- JPL , 2016 QA2 - SSA

 

1910, Jan 1

1 NEA known.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1910

Minor planet astronomy became organized in a formal way at the Rechen-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem (Germany), director Fritz Cohn (1878 – 1940).

Ref:

- G. Stracke, 1935, Astronomische Nachrichten, 255, 189, "25 Jahre genäherte Bearbeitung der Bahnen der Kleinen Planeten im Astronomischen Rechen-Institut." Predecessor of the MPC.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1935AN....255..189S  

See also: 1947.

 

1910, May 9

Asteroid 2007 JB21 (H = 25.4 mag, D ≈ 35 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.13 LD.

See: 2007 JB21 - JPL1 , 2007 JB21 - SSA

See also: 8 May 2054.

 

1911, May 5

Asteroid 2014 HO132 (H = 25.8 mag, D ≈ 30 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.56 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.56 LD.

See: 2014 HO132 - JPL , 2014 HO132 - SSA

 

1911, Jun 28

The Nakhla Meteorite fell to Earth on 28 June 1911 in the Nakhla region of Abu Hommos (Alexandria, Egypt). Many people witnessed its explosion in the upper atmosphere before the meteorite fell to Earth in an area of 4.5 km in diameter. About forty pieces were recovered. Recovered fragments ranged in weight from 20 to 1813 g.

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakhla_meteorite  

 

1911, Sep 8

Asteroid 719 Albert (1911 MT = 2000 JW8, H = 15.4 mag, D ≈ 2400 m) passed Earth at 80 LD.

Discovered by Johann Palisa (1848 – 1925), discoverer of 122 asteroids at the Vienna Observatory (Austria). Lost (the last missing), but rediscovered 1 May 2000 by Jeffrey A. Larsen with the Spacewatch Telescope in Arizona (USA).

See:

1911 MT - JPL , 719 Albert - SSA

See also: http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/asteroid_found_000510.html  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/719_Albert  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Palisa

 

1913, Feb 9

Earth-grazing fireball. A meteor procession observed from Canada to Bermuda and beyond.

Ref:

- J.A. O'Keefe, 1959, Journal Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 53, 59, "A probable natural satellite: the meteor procession of February 9, 1913."

As of 2008, four Earth-grazing fireballs have been scientifically observed: on 10 August 1972, 13 October 1990, 29 March 2006, and 7 August 2007. See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1959JRASC..53...59O  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth-grazing_fireball

 

1914, Mar 10

Asteroid 2016 CY135 (H = 24.5 mag, D ≈ 54 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.28 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.82 LD.

See: 2016 CY135 - JPL , 2016 CY135- SSA

See also: 11 Mar 2068.

 

1914, Oct 29

Asteroid 69230 Hermes (1937 UB, H = 17.6 mag, D ≈ 1287 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal distance of 9.76 LD. Minimum distance 9.72 LD. Discovered by Karl W. Reinmuth (1892 – 1979) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Heidelberg, Germany); lost; recovered 15 October 2003. Arecibo radar observations on the same day revealed it to be a binary asteroid, with components of D ≈ 400 m, separated by 1200 m.

See: 1937 UB - JPL , 69230 Hermes - SSA

See also:

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/31oct_hermes.htm  http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Oct03/Arecibo.asteroid.deb.html  

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003IAUC.8227....2M  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/69230_Hermes

See also: 30 Oct 1937, 26 Apr 1942, 1 Nov 1954, 31 Oct 2086, 30 Apr 2123.

 

1914, Dec 31

Asteroid 152680 (1998 KJ9, H = 19.4 mag, D ≈ 554 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.60 LD.

See: 1998 KJ9 - JPL , 152680 1998 KJ9 - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(152680)_1998_KJ9

 

1915, Sep 10

Asteroid 2010 RF12 (H = 28.4 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.22 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.10 LD. 

See: 2010 RF12 - JPL , 2010 RF12 - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_RF12

See also: 8 Sept 2010, 6 Sep 2095.

 

1917, Apr 9

Asteroid 2008 GY21 (H = 27.6 mag, D ≈ 13 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.48 LD. Minimum miss distance 0 LD.

It passed the Moon at a nominal miss distance of 0.16 LD and a minimum miss distance 0.06 LD.

See: 2008 GY21 - JPL , 2008 GY21 - SSA

See also: 9 Apr 2008.

 

1917, Jun 18

Asteroid 2014 MA18 (H = 25.7 mag, D ≈ 30 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.41 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.96 LD.

See: 2014 MA18 - JPL , 2014 MA18 - SSA

 

1917, Oct 4

Asteroid 2008 TC3 (H = 30.3 mag, D ≈ 4.1 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.80 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.81 LD.

See: 2008 TC3 - JPL , 2008 TC3 - SSA

 

1918, Feb 17

Asteroid 367943 Duende (2012 DA14, H = 24.1 mag, D ≈ 40 × 20 m), discovered in 2012 by the Spanish Observatorio Astronomico de la Sagra, passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.13 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.13 LD.

See: 2012 DA14 - JPL , 367943 Duende - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/367943_Duende

See also: 19 Aug 2004, 16 Feb 2012, 15 Feb 2013, 15 Feb 2046, 15 Feb 2087.

 

1918, Mar 29

Asteroid 2017 FY101 (H = 27.2 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.62 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.23 LD.

See: 2017 FY101 - JPL , 2017 FY101  - SSA  

 

1918, Sep 17

Asteroid 458732 (2011 MD5 , H = 17.9 mag, D ≈ 1074 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.91 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.91 LD.

See: 2011 MD5 - JPL , 2011 MD5 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_MD

 

1919, Nov 26

Michigan - Indiana Fireball and Airburst (USA).

See:

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1919-11-27/ed-1/seq-1/  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1919, Dec 21

Asteroid 2015 JQ1 (H = 20.3 mag, D ≈ 371 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.94 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.21 LD.

See: 2015 JQ1 - JPL , 2015 JQ1 - SSA

 

1920, Jan 1

3 NEAs known, of which 0 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1920, Jun 20

Asteroid 2017 MF (H = 26.5 mag, D 21 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.17 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.33 LD.

See: 2017 MF - SSA , 2017 MF - JPL

See also: 19 Jun 2017.

 

1921

Alfred Wegener (1880 – 1930, Germany), 1921, Die Entstehung der Mondkrater (Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn). Translation: A. Wegener, 1975, The Moon, 4, 211, "The origin of lunar craters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975Moon...14..211W

 

1922, Jun 6

Asteroid 2017 LD (H = 27.5 mag, D 13 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.38 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.04 LD (= 2.70 REarth from the geocenter).

See: 2017 LD - SSA , 2017 LD - JPL

 

1923

Discovery of asteroid 1000 Piazzia (1923 NZ, (H = 10.6 mag, D = 31.8 km, main-belt asteroid), by Karl W. Reinmuth (1892 – 1979) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl in Heidelberg (Germany). Upon his proposal, the IAU named the asteroid 1000 Piazzia, being the 1000th documented asteroid, in honour of Giuseppe Piazzi who discovered asteroid Ceres in 1801.

See:

1923 NZ - JPL , 1000 Piazzia - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1000_Piazzia

Ref:

- B. Asplind, 1926, Astronomische Nachrichten, 228, 89, "Benennung der Planeten 1000 – 1002."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1926AN....228...89A

 

1924, Sep 27

Asteroid 2003 SR84 (H = 25.4 mag, D ≈ 34 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.68 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.11 LD.

See: 2003 SR84 - JPL , 2003 SR84 - SSA

 

1924, Oct 23

Discovery of near-Earth asteroid 1036 Ganymed (1924 TD, H = 9.45, D = 36.5 km, orbital P = 4.34 yr), by W.H. Walter Baade at Hamburg-Bergedorf Observatory (Germany). Largest known NEA. In 1998, Arecibo radar images revealed a near spherical object.

See:

1924 TD - JPL , 1036 Ganymed - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1036_Ganymed

Ref:

- G. Hahn, P. Magnusson, A.W. Harris, et al., 1989, Icarus, 78, 363, "Physical studies of Apollo-Amor asteroids - UBVRI photometry of 1036 Ganymed and 1627 Ivar."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Icar...78..363H  

- P. Michel, R. Gonczi, P. Farinella, Ch. Froeschlé, 1999, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 347, 711, "Dynamical evolution of 1036 Ganymed, the largest near-Earth asteroid."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999A%26A...347..711M

- S.K. Fieber-Beyer, M.J. Gaffey, P.A. Abell, 2011, Icarus, 212, 149, "Mineralogical characterization of Near Earth Asteroid (1036) Ganymed.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Icar..212..149F  

 

1925, Mar 29

Asteroid 2012 FT35 (H = 29.3 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.10 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.0099 LD (= 0.59 REarth from the geocenter).

See: 2012 FT35 - JPL , 2012 FT35 - SSA

See also: 25 Mar 1975.

 

1925, Aug 28

Ellemeet Meteorite. Whit aloud noise, so that horses and cows took fright, this meteorite fell down in a meadow near Ellemeet, on the island of Schouwen (the Netherlands) on 28 August 1925, about 11:30 hr a.m.

See: http://www.sterrenkunde.nl/index/encyclopedie/meteoren.html

Ref:

- A.A. Nijland, 1927, Hemel en Dampkring, 1927, 187, "Een merkwaardige meteoorsteen."

- W. Nieuwenkamp, 1927, Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, 1927, 724, "The Meteorite of Ellemeet (after that of Uden in 1840, and that of Blauwkapel in 1843, the third known in the Netherlands)."

See: http://www.dwc.knaw.nl/DL/publications/PU00015500.pdf

 

1925, Aug 30

Asteroid 163132 (2002 CU11, H = 18.4 mag, D ≈ 460 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.90 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.90 LD.

See: 2002 CU11 - JPL , 163132 2002 CU11 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(163132)_2002_CU11

 

1927, Apr 10

Asteroid 2002 JE9 (H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 235 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.67 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.20 LD.

See: 2002 JE9 - JPL , 2002 JE9 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_JE9

See also: 11 Apr 1971.

 

1927, Nov 9

Asteroid 2015 VY  (H = 26.1 mag, D ≈ 25 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.51 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.79 LD.

See: 2015 VY - JPL , 2015 VY - SSA

 

1927, Dec 27

Asteroid 2016 XA2  (H = 21.6 mag, D ≈ 201 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.36 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.83 LD.

See: 2016 XA2  - JPL , 2016 XA2  - SSA

 

1929, Nov 1

Asteroid 2016 VP1  (H = 27.3 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.07 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.62 LD.

See: 2016 VP1  - JPL , 2016 VP1  - SSA

 

1930, Jan 1

5 NEAs known, of which 0 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1930, May 13

Asteroid 2011 AX22 (H = 24.7 mag, D ≈ 48 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.95 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.18 LD.

See: 2011 AX22 - JPL , 2011 AX22 - SSA

See also: 13 May 2055.

 

1930, Aug 13

Curuçá Fireball and Airburst over Rio Curuçá (Amazonas, Brazil). Coinciding with the annual Perseid meteor shower.

See:

http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1102.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

Ref:

- N. Vasilyev, G. Andreev, 1989, WGN, the Journal of the International Meteor Organization, 17, 245, "The Brazilian twin of the Tunguska Meteorite: myth or reality?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JIMO...17..245V  

- M.E. Bailey, D.J. Markham, S. Massai, J.E. Scriven, 1995, The Observatory, 115, 250, "The 1930 August 'Brazilian Tunguska' Event."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Obs...115..250B

- D. Steel, 1995, WGN, the Journal of the International Meteor Organization, 23, 207, "Two 'Tunguskas' in South America in the 1930's?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JIMO...23..207S

- W. Napier, D. Asher, 2009, Astronomy & Geophysics, 50, 1.18, "The Tunguska impact event and beyond."

See: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50118.x/abstract

- G. Cordero, A. Poveda, 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59(1), 10, "Curuça 1930: A probable mini-Tunguska?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011P%26SS...59...10C

 

1930, Oct 3

Asteroid 2011 AX22 (H = 24.7 mag, D ≈ 48 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.41 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.79 LD.

See: 2011 AX22 - JPL , 2011 AX22 - SSA

 

1931, May 8

Asteroid 2008 JP24 (H = 26.7 mag, D ≈ 19 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.02 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.32 LD.

See: 2008 JP24 - JPL , 2008 JP24 - SSA

 

1931, Sep 7

Asteroid 2010 RX30 (H = 27.2 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.63 LD. Minimum miss distance 9.58 LD.

See: 2010 RX30 - JPL , 2010 RX30 -SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_RX30      

See also: 8 Sep 2010.

 

1932, Feb 3

Asteroid 2014 BW32 (H = 26.6 mag, D ≈ 20 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.47 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.86 LD.

See: 2014 BW32 - JPL , 2014 BW32 - SSA

 

1932, Apr 24

First discovery of an Earth-orbit crossing NEA: asteroid 1862 Apollo (1932 HA, H = 16.4 mag, D ≈ 1400 m, PHA), by Karl W. Reinmuth (1892 – 1979) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Heidelberg, Germany); lost; recovered in 1973.

See:

1932 HA - JPL , 1862 Apollo - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1862_Apollo

Ref:

- M. Davidson, 1932, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc., 92, 691, "The Reinmuth object."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1932MNRAS..92..691D

- L.A. Lebofsky, G.J. Veeder, G.H. Rieke, et al., 1981, Icarus, 48, 335, "The albedo and diameter of 1862 Apollo."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Icar...48..335L  

 

1932, Oct 21

Asteroid 2012 CU (H = 26.0 mag, D ≈ 27 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.09 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.73 LD.

See: 2012 CU - JPL , 2012 CU - SSA

 

1932, Dec

In December 1932, scientists surveying the southern Egyptian desert came upon pieces of a translucent, pale yellow-green, glassy substance, from tiny fragments to football-sized chunks, scattered over a huge area at the Libyan border. Known as Libyan desert glass, this almost pure silica contained isotopes showing it to be of extraterrestrial origin.  Further reading: see 3 March 2006.

See:

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/311/5765/1223c

See also: http://www.wits.ac.za/newsroom/newsitems/201310/21649/news_item_21649.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_desert_glass

 

1932, Dec 8

Arroyomolinos de León Fireball and Airburst (Spain).

See:

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2011/pdf/1368.pdf  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1933, Jan 17

Asteroid 7482 (1994 PC1, H = 16.5 mag, D ≈ 1300 m, PHA) will pass Earth at 2.93 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.93 LD.

See: 1994 PC1 -JPL , 7482 1994 PC1 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(7482)_1994_PC1

See also: 18 Jan 2022.

 

1933, Oct 22

Asteroid 2015 UM52 (H = 27.8 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.64 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.47 LD.

See: 2015 UM52 - JPL , 2015 UM52 - SSA

See also: 22 Oct 2015.

 

1934, Feb 10

Discovery of asteroid 1934 CT and promptly lost. Re-discovered 4 January 1989 and listed as 1989 AC = 4179 Toutatis (H = 15.3 mag, D ≈ 4750 x 1950 m)

See: 1934 CT - JPL , 4179 Toutatis - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4179_Toutatis

See: 4 Jan 1989.

 

1934, May 3

Asteroid 2011 JV10 (H = 29.7 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.53 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.32 LD.

See: 2011 JV10 - JPL , 2011 JV10 - SSA

 

1934, Sep 22

Asteroid 2013 RG74 (H = 23.4 mag, D ≈ 90 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.58 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.81 LD.

See: 2013 RG74 - JPL , 2013 RG74 - SSA

 

1935, Mar 8

Asteroid 2015 DD54 (H = 25.4 mag, D ≈ 34 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.48 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.48 LD.

See: 2015 DD54 - JPL , 2015 DD54 - SSA

 

1935, Apr

G. Stracke, 1935, Astronomische Nachrichten, 255, 189, "25 Jahre genäherte Bearbeitung der Bahnen der Kleinen Planeten im Astronomischen Rechen-Institut." Predecessor of the Minor Planet Center. At the time 1301 minor planets were numbered. See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1935AN....255..189S

 

1935, Dec 11

Rupununi Fireball and Airburst over Rupununi (British Guyana), near the date of the peak of the annual Geminid meteor shower.

Ref:

- D. Steel, 1995, WGN, the Journal of the International Meteor Organization, 23, 207, "Two 'Tunguskas' in South America in the 1930's?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JIMO...23..207S  

- W. Napier, D. Asher, 2009, Astronomy & Geophysics, 50, 1.18, "The Tunguska impact event and beyond."

See: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50118.x/abstract

 

1936

F. Watson, 1936, Popular Astronomy, 44, 2, "Meteor craters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1936PA.....44....2W

 

1936

F. Watson, E.M. Cook, 1936, Popular Astronomy, 44, 131, "The detonating Fireball of May 26, 1935."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1936PA.....44..131W

 

1936, Jan 6

Asteroid 2010 VB1 (H = 23.2 mag, D ≈ 95 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.55 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.55 LD.

See: 2010 VB1 - JPL , 2010 VB1 - SSA

See also: 7 Jan 2086.

 

1936, Feb 12

Second discovery of an Earth-orbit crossing NEA: asteroid 2101 Adonis (1936 CA, H = 18.4 mag, D ≈ 880 m, PHA), by Eugene Delporte (1872 – 1955, Belgium). Nominal miss distance of 5.77 LD. Minimum miss distance 5.77 LD. Subsequently lost; recovered in 1977.

See: 1936 CA - JPL , 2101 Adonis - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2101_Adonis

 

1936, Apr 16

Asteroid 2015 GA1 (H = 26.6 mag, D ≈ 20 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.25 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.40 LD.

See: 2015 GA1 - JPL , 2015 GA1 - SSA

 

1937

F.G. Watson, H. Shapley, 1937, Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, 105, no. 32, The Observatory, p. 623.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1937AnHar.105..623W  

 

1937, May 11

Asteroid 2006 JY26 (H = 28.4 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 30.5 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.2 LD.

See: 2006 JY26 - JPL , 2006 JY26 - SSA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_JY26

Ref:

- R. Brasser, P. Wiegert, 2008, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 386, 2931, "Asteroids on Earth-like orbits and their origin."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.386.2031B   

See also:

http://fromthegonzo.wordpress.com/2006/05/12/asteroid-impact-effects/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_JY26

See also: 10 May 2006, 3 May 2074.

 

1937, Oct 30

Asteroid 69230 Hermes (1937 UB, H = 17.6 mag, D ≈ 1287 m, PHA) passed Earth at 1.93 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.93 LD.

Discovered by Karl W. Reinmuth (1892 – 1979) at the Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl (Heidelberg, Germany); lost; recovered 15 October 2003. Arecibo radar observations on the same day revealed it to be a binary asteroid, with components of D ≈ 400 m, separated by 1200 m.

See: 1937 UB - JPL , 69230 Hermes - SSA

See also:

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/31oct_hermes.htm  http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Oct03/Arecibo.asteroid.deb.html  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003IAUC.8227....2M

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/69230_Hermes

See also: 29 Oct 1914, 26 Apr 1942, 1 Nov 1954, 31 Oct 2086, 30 Apr 2123.

 

1938, Mar 11

Asteroid 2013 FA8 (H = 21.0 mag, D ≈ 270 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.05 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.90 LD.

See: 2013 FA8 - JPL , 2013 FA8 - SSA

 

1938, Mar 13

Asteroid 2012 DW60 (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 21 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.84 LD.

See: 2012 DW60 - JPL , 2012 DW60 - SSA

 

1938, Jun 1

Asteroid 2017 KW31 (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 21 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 8.54 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.52 LD.

See: 2017 KW31 - JPL , 2017 KW31 - SSA

 

1938, Jun 24

Chicora meteoroid. A meteoroid exploded as it entered the atmosphere above Chicora (PA, USA) on June 24, 1938. Based on the size of the explosion, the rock's initial mass (before it broke up) may have been more than 450 tons. However, only scant pieces of the meteorite were ever found – located miles away from where the main mass, missing to this day, is thought to have landed. Several reports on the Chicora meteorite mention that an unsuspecting cow was struck and injured by one falling shard; other accounts say that the poor animal was killed.

See:

http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1535-when-space-attacks-6-craziest-meteor-impacts-history.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicora,_Pennsylvania#Chicora_Meteor   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1938, Nov 2

Asteroid 2016 VA (H = 27.2 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.47 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.42 LD.

See: 2016 VA  - SSA , 2016 VA - JPL ,

http://iawn.net/?s=2016+VA+

See also: 2 Nov 2016, 1 Nov 2024.

 

1939, May 30

Asteroid 2012 KP24 (H = 26.4 mag, D ≈ 22 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.29 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.63 LD.

See: 2012 KP24 - JPL , 2012 KP24 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_KP24

See also: 28 May 2012.

 

1940, Jan 1

9 NEAs known, of which 3 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1940

F. Watson, 1940, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 34, 418, "The meteor of May 7, 1928."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1940JRASC..34..418W

 

1940, Jul 6

Asteroid 2014 HC199 (H = 22.6 mag, D ≈ 125 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.45 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.35 LD.

See: 2014 HC199 - JPL , 2014 HC199 - SSA

 

1941

F.G. Watson, 1941, Between the planets (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

 

1941, Jan 10

Asteroid 2014 AW32 (H = 27.5 mag, D ≈ 13 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.37 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.28 LD.

See: 2014 AW32 - JPL , 2014 AW32 - SSA

See also: 10 Jan 2014.

 

1941, Apr 9

Chelyabinsk Airburst and Fireball (Russia).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1941, Oct 9

Asteroid 2011 UK10 (H = 24.9 mag, D ≈ 44 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.16 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.30 LD.

See: 2011 UK10 - JPL , 2011 UK10 - SSA

 

1942, Feb

H.H. Nininger, 1942, Popular Astronomy, 50, 111, "A celestial bomb." On the Forest City (Iowa, USA) fall of 2 May 1890.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1942PA.....50..111N

 

1942, Apr 26

Asteroid 69230 Hermes (1937 UB, H = 17.6 mag, D ≈ 1287 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.65 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.65 LD.

See: 1937 UB  JPL  , 69230 Hermes - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/69230_Hermes

See also: 29 Oct 1914, 30 Oct 1937, 1 Nov 1954, 31 Oct 2086, 30 Apr 2123.

 

1943

Antoine de Saint Exupéry, 1943, Le Petit Prince, (Paris: Editions Gallimard). Featuring fictional asteroid B612.

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Little_Prince

See also:

http://www.universetoday.com/96509/chasing-the-little-prince-in-new-york-city/

 

1943, Feb 26

Asteroid 2017 DR34  (H = 29.1 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.92 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.24 LD.

See: 2017 DR34  - SSA , 2017 DR34 - JPL ,

http://iawn.net/?s=2017+DR34  

See also: 25 Feb 2017, 26 Feb 2105

 

1943, May 13

Asteroid 2015 KG158 (H = 28.3 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.19 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.71 LD.

See: 2015 KG158 - JPL , 2015 KG158 - SSA

See also: 15 May 2060.

 

1944, Mar 09

Asteroid 2017 DA36 (H = 24.9 mag, D ≈ 43 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.97 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.27 LD.

See: 2017 DA36 - JPL , 2017 DA36 - SSA

 

1944, Nov 14

Asteroid 2007 VF189 (H = 28.3 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.28 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.92 LD.

See: 2007 VF189 - JPL , 2007 VF189 - SSA

See also: 14 Nov 2007.

 

1944, Dec

Daytime Fireball over Bulannyo (Rhodesia). Norman Appleton witnessed a meteor so bright he remembered it his entire life. Right before his eyes a tremendous smoking fireball streaked across the daytime sky. Years later, as an accomplished member of the Guild of Aviation Artists, he recorded his memories in a painting.

See:

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap010728.html http://www.gava.org.uk/index.cfm?page=searchresults&searchType=quickSearch  

 

1945, Jul 19

Asteroid 2016 BA15 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 18 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.99 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.11 LD (= 6.6 REarth from the geocenter).

See: 2016 BA15 - JPL , 2016 BA15 - SSA

See also: 21 Jul 2056.

 

1945, Sep 4

Asteroid 2014 RC (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 19 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.67 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.40 LD.

See: 2014 RC - JPL , 2014 RC - SSA

 

1947

IAU Minor Planet Center (MPC), established by the International Astronomical Union, Commission 20, and succeeding the work which was carried out since 1910 by the Rechen-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem (Germany), started operations at the Observatory of the University of Cincinnati (Ohio, USA), director Paul Herget (1908 – 1981, USA). At the time, 1564 minor planets were numbered. Upon Herget's retirement in 1978, the amount of numbered minor planets had reached 2060, and the MPC moved to the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge (MA, USA) with Brian G. Marsden (1937 – 2010) as director. For a history of the MPC, see:

- C.M. Bardwell, 1989, "A brief history of the Minor Planet Center."

- B.G. Marsden, 2009, IAU Information Bulletin, No. 104, p. 67, "History of the Minor Planet Center." See: http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/mpc.html  http://www.iau.org/static/publications/IB104.pdf  ,  p. 67.

 

1947, Feb 12

Sikhote-Alin Fireball and Airburst passed over Sikhote-Alin mountains (Primorye, Russia), creating a 32 km long smoke trail in the sky at an altitude of 5.6 km. The bright flash and the deafening sound of the fall were observed at 300 km around the point of impact, not far from Luchegorsk and ~ 440 km northeast of Vladivostok. The pre-impact mass of the meteoroid may have been 100,000 kg. The strewn field of this meteorite covered an elliptical area of about 1.3 km. Some fragments made craters, the largest of which was about 26 m across and 6 m deep.

Ref:

- R.A. Gallant, 1997, Sky & Telescope, 93, no. 2, p.50, "Sikhote-Alin: 50 years later."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997S%26T....93b..50G

See also:  

http://meteoritemag.uark.edu/604.htm  http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1535-when-space-attacks-6-craziest-meteor-impacts-history.html   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikhote-Alin_meteorite

 

1947, Apr 3

Asteroid 2008 GM2 (H = 28.4 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.99 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.56 LD.

See: 2008 GM2 - JPL , 2008 GM2 - SSA

See also: 3 Apr 2008.

 

1947, Apr 21

Asteroid 2016 EK27 (H = 22.3 mag, D ≈ 146 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.37 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.49 LD.

See: 2016 EK27 - JPL , 2016 EK27 - SSA

 

1947, Dec 3

Asteroid 2008 WA14 (H = 23.0 mag, D ≈ 107 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.89 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.27 LD.

See: 2008 WA14 -JPL , 2008 WA14 - SSA

 

1948

The international yearbook "Ephemerides of minor planets", published since 1948 for the International Astronomical Union by the Institute of Applied Astronomy, St Petersburg (Russian Federation), contains information on orbital elements of numbered minor planets and the circumstances of their observations during the best observation periods.

See: http://www.ipa.nw.ru/PAGE/DEPFUND/LSBSS/engephem.htm

 

1948, Feb 9

Asteroid 2016 CO248 (H = 27.5 mag, D ≈ 13 m) will pass Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.45 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.00 LD.

See: 2016 CO248 - JPL , 2016 CO248 - SSA

 

1949

Ralph E. Baldwin (…. – 19.., USA), The Face of the Moon (Chicago: UCP), describing the damage that a NEO impact might cause on Earth.

Reviews: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1949PA.....57..257B

 

1949, Jan 1

Asteroid 2003 YS70 (H = 28.8 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.68 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.63 LD.

See: 2003 YS70 - JPL , 2003 YS70 - SSA

 

1949, Apr 14

Asteroid 99942 Apophis (2004 MN4, H = 19.7 mag, D = 310 ± 30 m, orbital P = 0.89 yr, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 10.88 LD. Minimum miss distance 10.88 LD.

See: 2004 MN4 - JPL , 99942 Apophis - SSA

See also: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Herschel_intercepts_asteroid_Apophis

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/99942_Apophis

See also: 13 Apr 1907, 14 Apr 1998, 13 Apr 2029, 23 Mar 2036.

 

1949, Jun 11

Kunashak Meteor Shower.  A shower of about 20 meteorites fell near Kunashak (Chelyabinsk Province, Russia). Total recovered weight over 200 kg, the largest stones weighing 120 kg, 40 kg, and 36 kg. See: http://books.google.nl/books?id=mkdHJR35Q_8C&pg=PA285&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false  http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=12377  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelyabinsk_meteor

 

1949, Jun 27

Discovery of Earth-orbit crossing asteroid 1566 Icarus (1949 MA, H = 16.3 mag, D = 1270 m, Apollo asteroid, also Venus- and Mercury-orbit crossing, PHA) by Walter Baade (1893 – 1960, Germany/USA). In 1968 Icarus became the first minor planet to be observed by radar. It is plausible that Icarus and asteroid 5786 Talos (1991 RC, H = 16.0 mag, D 1.3 km) and asteroid 2007 MK6, H = 19.9 mag, D 350 m) are related.

See:

1949 MA - JPL , 1566 Icarus - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1566_Icarus  

Ref:

- D.K. Yeomans, 1991, Astronomical Journal, 101, 1920, "A comet among the near-earth asteroids?" [Erratum, 1992, AJ, 104, 1266]. See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AJ....101.1920Y  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AJ....104.1266Y   

- D. Steel, 1991, Nature, 354, 265, "Our asteroid-pelted planet." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.354..265S

- K. Ohtsuka, H. Arakida, T. Ito, et al., 2007, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 668, L71, "Apollo asteroids 1566 Icarus and 2007 MK6: Icarus family members?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApJ...668L..71O  

 

1949, Oct 14

Asteroid 2016 TZ55 (H = 26.9 mag, D ≈ 18 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.98 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.05 LD.

See: 2016 TZ55 -JPL , 2010 TZ55 - SSA ,

 

1949, Dec 11

Asteroid 2010 XR69 (H = 25.4 mag, D ≈ 35 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.42 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.92 LD.

See: 2010 XR69 -JPL , 2010 XR69 - SSA

 

1950, Jan 1

13 NEAs known, of which 5 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1950

The Yerkes-McDonald Survey of Asteroids (1950 – 1952), down to v = 16.5, was performed by astronomers Gerard P. Kuiper (1905 – 1973, Netherlands/USA), George A. Van Biesbroeck (1880 – 1974, Belgium/USA), Cornelis J. van Houten (1920 – 2002, Netherlands), Ingrid M. van Houten-Groeneveld (Netherlands) and Tom Gehrels (Netherlands/USA). A number of 3247 objects were found. Ref: G.P. Kuiper, Y. Fujita, T. Gehrels, I. M. Groeneveld, J. Kent, G.A. Van Biesbroeck, C.J. van Houten, 1958, Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 3, 289, "Survey of asteroids".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958ApJS....3..289K

 

1951

Ernst Julius Öpik (1893-1985, Estonia – Ireland), 1951, Proc. Royal Irish Academy, 54A, 165, "Collision probabilities with the planets and the distribution of interplanetary matter." Discussing the possible importance of the Yarkovsky effect, discovered by Ivan Osipovich Yarkovsky (1844-1902, Russian-Polish civil engineer) for meteoroids moving about the solar system.

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1951PRIA...54..165O http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yarkovsky_effect  

 

1952

V.V. Radzievskii, 1952, Astron. Zh., 29, 162, "A mechanism for the disintegration of asteroids and meteorites".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1952AZh....29..162R

 

1952, Jun 7

Asteroid 2014 HQ124 (H = 18.9 mag, D ≈ 370 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.35 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.35 LD.

See: 2014 HQ124 -JPL , 2014 HQ124 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_HQ124

See also: 7 Jun 1901, 8 Jun 2014, 8 Jun 2065.

 

1952, Dec

E.J. Öpik, 1952, Irish Astronomical Journal, 2, 95, "Collisions with heavenly bodies."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1952IrAJ....2...95O

 

1954

A.C.B. Lovell, 1954, Meteor Astronomy (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1954QB741.L6.......  

A critical review of this book, with comments on meteor velocities in particular, is given by E.J. Öpik, 1955, Irish Astronomical Journal, 3, 144, "Meteor astronomy."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1955IrAJ....3..144O  

 

1954, Mar 13

Asteroid 2013 RZ53 (H = 31.2 mag, D ≈ 2 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.27 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.26 LD.

See: 2013 RZ53 - JPL , 2013 RZ53 - SSA

See also: 18 Sep 2013.

 

1954, Mar 18

Asteroid 2005 FN (H = 26.9 mag, D ≈ 17 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.02 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.06 LD.

See: 2005 FN - JPL , 2005 FN - SSA

 

1954, Aug 1

Asteroid 2011 CC22  (H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 234 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 11.87 LD. Minimum miss distance 11.86 LD.

See: 2011 CC22  - SSA , 2011 CC22  - JPL

See also: 4 Aug 2017.

 

1954, Nov 30

Hodges meteorite. First known modern case of a human hit by a space rock occurred in Sylacauga (Alabama, USA). A 4 kg stone chondrite crashed through a roof and hit Mrs. Ann Hodges in her living room after it bounced off her radio. She was badly bruised. The Hodges meteorite, or Sylacauga meteorite, is on exhibit at the Alabama Museum of Natural History.

See:

http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1535-when-space-attacks-6-craziest-meteor-impacts-history.html   

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/only-person-ever-hit-meteorite-real-trouble-began-later-180961238/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylacauga_(meteorite)  

 

1954, Dec

G.P. Kuiper, 1954, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 40(12), 1096, "On the origin of the lunar surface features."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1954PNAS...40.1096K

 

1954, Dec 4

Asteroid 2012 KT42 (H = 28.8 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.03 LD.

See: 2012 KT42 - JPL , 2012 KT42 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_KT42

See also: 3 Dec 1915, 29 May 2012.

 

1955, Jun 19

Asteroid 2015 LR21 (H = 26.5 mag, D ≈ 21 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.59 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.56 LD.

See: 2015 LR21 - JPL , 2015 LR21 - SSA

 

1955, Sep 18

Asteroid 2015 KE (H = 26.2 mag, D ≈ 24 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.30 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.02 LD.

See: 2015 KE  - JPL , 2015 KE - SSA

See also: 7 May 2107.

 

1955, Dec 22

Asteroid 2006 RJ1 (H = 22.2 mag, D ≈ 154 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.80 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.39 LD.

See: 2006 RJ1 - JPL , 2006 RJ1 - SSA

 

1956, Jan

M.W. De Laubenfels (1956) suggested the idea that the dinosaurs demise is due to an impact event and the resulting super-hot winds that would result. He scaled up the effects of the Tunguska blast and made first suggestion of the death of the dinosaurs being impact related. Mammals first appeared in Cretaceous with the most outstanding type differing little from the modern opossum. The author argues for a brief period of extreme heat enough to kill exposed large animals. Birds, mammals, aquatic animals would have survived. He notes in October 1937 the close Earth approach of Hermes and the Tunguska event. He computes an amount of heat available from a 100 m sized impactor at 10 km/s and notes that if kinetic energy turned into heat, it would be enough to boil 1016 tons of water whereas entire oceans are 1018 tons.

- Ref: M.W. De Laubenfels (Oregon State College), 1956, Journal of Paleontology, 30, 207, "Dinosaur extinction: one more hypothesis."

See: http://www.norwebster.com/astrohit/

 

1956, May

C.S. Beals, G.M. Ferguson, A. Landau, 1956, Sky & Telescope, 15, 296, "The Holleford Crater in Ontario."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1956S%26T....15..296B

 

1956, Nov

Harold C. Urey (1893 – 1981, USA), 1956, Astrophysical Journal, 124, 623, "Diamonds, meteorites, and the origin of the Solar System."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1956ApJ...124..623U

 

1956, Dec 16

Asteroid 33342 (1998 WT24, H = 17.8 mag, D ≈ 415 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.52 LD. Minimum miss distance 3.52 LD.

See: 1998 WT24 - JPL , 1998 WT24 - SSA

See also:

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/1998wt24.html  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast14dec_1/   http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4800

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(33342)_1998_WT24

See also: 16 Dec 1908, 16 Dec 2001, 11 Dec 2015, 18 Dec 2099

 

1957, Sep

C.S. Beals, 1957, Sky & Telescope, 16, 526, "A probable meteorite crater of great age."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1957S%26T....16..526B

 

1957, Dec 10

Asteroid 2010 XW58 (H = 24.8 mag, D ≈ 47 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.16 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.16 LD.

See: 2010 XW58 - JPL , 2010 XW58 - SSA

 

1958

E.J. Öpik, 1958, Physics of meteor flight in the atmosphere (New York: Interscience Publishers).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958QB741.O38......

 

1958, Feb 22

C.S. Beals, 1958, Nature, 181, 559, "A survey of terrestrial craters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958Natur.181..559B

 

1958, Mar

E.J. Öpik, 1958, Irish Astronomical Journal, 5, 34, "On the catastrophic effect of collisions with celestial bodies." Öpik proposed that NEO impacts might have handicapped the development of land in the paleontological history.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958QB741.O38......

 

1958, Jul

G.P. Kuiper, Y. Fujita, T. Gehrels, I. M. Groeneveld, J. Kent, G.A. Van Biesbroeck, C.J. van Houten, 1958, Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 3, 289, "Survey of asteroids".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958ApJS....3..289K

 

1959, Jan 27

Asteroid 2012 BX34 (H = 27.6 mag, D ≈ 13 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.53 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.40 LD.

See: 2012 BX34 - JPL , 2012 BX34 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_BX34

See also: 27 Jan 2012

 

1959, Apr 7

Příbram Meteorite Fall, the first meteorite simultaneously observed by several stations in the Czech Republic. The network was initiated locally at Ondřejov Observatory. By 1963, the network consisted of 5 stations. In 1968 it had expanded by the installation of about 15 new stations in Germany, and was named the European Fireball Network.

- Ref: P. Spurný, J. Boroviča, L. Shrbený, 2007, in: A. Milani, G.B. Valsecchi & D. Vokrouhlický (eds.), Proc. IAU Symposium No. 236 on Near Earth Objects, our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, Prague (Czech Republic), 14-18 August 2006 (Cambridge: CUP), p. 121, "Automation of the Czech part of the European Fireball Network: equipment, methods and first results."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IAUS..236..121S  http://www.dlr.de/pf/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-623/1043_read-26813/  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Fireball_Network  

 

1960, Jan 1

20 NEAs known, of which 8 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1960, Jan 17

Asteroid 2001 BA16 (H = 25.8 mag, D ≈ 29 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.88 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.06 LD.

See: 2001 BA16 - JPL , 2001 BA16 - SSA

See also: 15 Jan 2001.

 

1960, Sep - Oct

Tom Gehrels took Palomar Schmidt (1.2-m) plates, on which C.J. van Houten et al. (1970) discovered over 2000 asteroids with v < 20 mag, including four NEAs.

Ref: C.J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, P. Herget & T. Gehrels, 1970, Astronomy & Astrophysics Suppl., 2, 339, "The Palomar-Leiden survey of faint minor planets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970A%26AS....2..339V  

C.J. van Houten, P. Herget, B.G. Marsden, 1984, Icarus, 59, 1, "The Palomar-Leiden survey of faint minor planets – Conclusion."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Icar...59....1V  

 

1960, Oct 24

Asteroid 2004 UH1 (H = 28.2 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.47 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.41 LD.

See: 2004 UH1 - JPL , 2004 UH1 - SSA

See also: 24 Oct 2004.

 

1961, Oct

Eugene M. Shoemaker and Edward C.T. Chao proved that Nördlingen Ries crater (d = 24 km, Nördlingen, western Bavaria, Germany), formed ~14.4 My ago in the Miocene, was caused by meteorite impact. Another impact crater, the much smaller (3.8 km diameter) Steinheim crater, is located ~ 42 km WSW from the centre of Ries. The two craters are believed to have formed nearly simultaneously by the impact of a binary asteroid. The impactors probably had diameters of ~ 1.5 km (Ries) and 150 m (Steinheim), and a pre-impact separation of some tens of kilometers.

Ref:

- E.M. Shoemaker, E.C.T. Chao, 1961, Journal of Geophysical Research, 66, 3371, "New evidence for the impact origin of the Ries Basin, Bavaria, Germany."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1961JGR....66.3371S

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C3%B6rdlinger_Ries  http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/images/ries.htm  http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/nordlingen2010/  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a14/a14ries.html  

The Earth Impact Database lists some 170 known impact craters on Earth.

See: http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/

 

1962, Mar 24

H.C. Urey, 1962, Nature, 193, 1119, " Life-forms in meteorites: origin of life-like forms in carbonaceous chondrites. Introduction." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1962Natur.193.1119U

 

1962, Mar 30

Asteroid 2002 GQ (H = 26.4 mag, D ≈ 22 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.97 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.58 LD.

See: 2002 GQ - JPL , 2002 GQ - SSA

 

1962, Jun 15

Asteroid 2015 YC1 (H = 26.1 mag, D ≈ 26.0 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 8.59 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.69 LD.

See: 2015 YC1 - JPL , 2015 YC1 - SSA

 

1963

Eugene M. Shoemaker (1928 – 1997, USA) and colleagues firmly established the impact origin of the Meteor Crater in Arizona. Meteor Crater is located approximately 69 km east of Flagstaff, near Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States. The site was formerly known as the Canyon Diablo Crater. Scientists generally refer to it as Barringer Crater, in honor of the geologist Daniel Barringer (1860 – 1929) who was first to suggest that it was produced by meteorite impact. Barringer Meteor Crater lies at an elevation of about 1,740 m above sea level. It is ~ 1,200 m in diameter, 170 m deep, and is surrounded by a rim that rises 45 m above the surrounding plains. The center of the crater is filled with 210 – 240 m of rubble lying above crater bedrock. The incoming asteroid had a diameter of ~ 25 m and a velocity of 15 km/s. The largest meteorite found is the so-called Holsinger meteorite, weighing 639 kg, on display in the Meteor Crater Visitor Center on the rim of the crater.

See:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_Crater  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barringer_Crater  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holsinger_Meteorite

Ref:

- E.M. Shoemaker, 1963, in: B.M. Middlehurst & G.P. Kuiper (eds.), The Moon, Meteorites, and Comets (Chicago: UCP), p. 301, "Impact mechanics at Meteor Crater, Arizona."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1963mmc..book..301S

- D.J. Roddy, E.M. Shoemaker, 1995, Meteoritics 30(5), 567, "Meteor Crater (Barringer Meteorite Crater), Arizona: summary of impact conditions."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.567R

- M. Boslough, 1996, Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 20.2, March/April 1996, "Scientific knowledge is money in the bank." See: http://www.csicop.org/si/show/scientific_knowledge_is_money_in_the_bank

- D.A. Kring, 1997, Meteoritics& Planetary Science, 32, 517, "Air blast produced by the Meteor Crater impact event and a reconstruction of the affected environment."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997M%26PS...32..517K  

- D.A. Kring, 1999, Sky & Telescope, 98(5), 48, "Calamity at Meteor Crater."

 See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999S%26T....98e..48K  

- H.J. Melosh, G.S. Collins, 2005, Nature, 434, 157, "Meteor Crater formed by a low-velocity impact."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.434..157M

See also: http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/images/barringer.htm  http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap070623.html

 

1963

Initiation of the European Fireball Network. Ref: J. Olberst, S. Molau, D. Heinlein, et al., 1998, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33, 49, "The 'European Fireball Network': Current status and future prospects".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998M&PS...33...49O

See also:

http://www.molau.de/meteore/imc97-2.html  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IAUS..236..121S  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6936/full/423123a.html  http://www.dlr.de/pf/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-623/1043_read-1425/  

 

1963

M.R. Dence, M.J.S. Innes, C.S. Beals, 1963, Astronomical Journal, 68, 534, "On the probable meteorite origin of the Clearwater Lakes, Quebec."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1963AJ.....68..534D

 

1963, Mar

Initiation of the Prairie Meteorite Network, with a prototype station in Havanna (IL, USA). By May 1964, 16 stations were operational.

Ref:

- R.E. McCrosky, H. Boeschenstein, 1965, SAO Special Report, No. 173, "The Prairie Meteorite Network."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965SAOSR.173.....M   

- Z. Ceplecha, R.E. McCrosky, 1997, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 32, A157, "Prairie Network fireballs: data on height, distance and brightness for each measured time-mark."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997M%26PSA..32..157C  

 

1963, Nov 4

Asteroid 2010 JL88 (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 19 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.80 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.56 LD.

See: 2010 JL88 - JPL , 2010 JL88 SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_JL88

 

1963, Aug 3

Prince Edward Islands Fireball and Airburst (South Africa). See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1963, Nov 2

R.L.C. Gallant, 1963, Nature, 200, 414, "Changes in the Earth's axis due to large meteorite collisions."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1963Natur.200..414G

 

1964

C.S. Beals, M.R. Dence, A.J. Cohen, 1964, Astronomical Journal, 69, 134, "Evidence suggesting a meteorite impact origin for Lac Couture, Quebec."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1964AJ.....69R.134B

 

1964

Dandridge M. Cole, Donald W. Cox, 1964, Islands in space: the challenge of the planetoids (Philadephia: Chilton).

See: http://discoveryenterprise.blogspot.com/2007/08/islands-in-space-challenge-of.html

 

1964

René L.C. Gallant (1906 – 1985, Belgium), 1964, Bombarded Earth (London: John Baker Publishers Ltd).

See: http://www.catastrophism.com/cdrom/pubs/books/gallant/index.htm  http://www.velikovsky.info/Ren%C3%A9_Gallant#cite_note-palmer2003-0

 

1965, Jan 17

Asteroid 2007 BD (H = 25.6 mag, D ≈ 32 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.002 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.855 LD.

See: 2007 BD - JPL , 2007 BD- SSA

See also: 18 Jan 2007.

 

1965, Mar 31

Revelstoke Fireball and Airburst, 64 km NW of the city of Revelstoke (BC, Canada): an extremely bright bolide giving off sparks was observed to travel for 100 km in 8 seconds.

See:

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=22592  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1965, Oct 27

Asteroid 2005 VL1 (H = 26.3 mag, D ≈ 23 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.75 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.74 LD.

See: 2005 VL1 - JPL , 2005 VL1 - SSA

See also: 3 Nov 2087.

 

1966, Jan 12

Asteroid 2016 AN165  (H = 27.7 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.21 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.31 LD.

See: 2016 AN165- JPL , 2016 AN165- SSA

See also: 13 Jan 2016.

 

1966, Feb 18

Asteroid 2011 DS (H = 27.0 mag, D ≈ 17 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.44 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.57 LD.

See: 2011 DS - JPL , 2011 DS - SSA

See also: 21 Feb 1981, 15 Aug 2047, 18 Feb 2050.

 

1966, July

In an UPI report, Australian scientist S.T. Butler noted an upcoming close Earth approach by the asteroid 1566 Icarus (1949 MA, H = 16.0 mag, D = 1.3 km, PHA) in 1968. He suggested that the asteroid could possibly be destroyed by a nuclear warhead if it neared the Earth. Paul Sandorff (MIT, U.S.A.) then assigned a hypothetical problem to his system engineering class. This “Icarus Project” drew a good deal of attention, including a Time Magazine story in June 1967 and a book the following year.

See: 1949 MA -JPL , 1566 Icarus - SSA ,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Icarus

Ref:

- Time Magazine, 16 June 1967, "Systems engineering: avoiding an asteroid";

- Louis A. Kleinman (ed.), 1968, "Project Icarus: an MIT student project in systems engineering" (Cambridge: MIT Press);

- MIT Students, 1979, "Project Icarus – revised edition" (Cambridge: MIT Press).

 

1966, Sep 17

Lake Huron, Michigan-Ontario Fireball and Airburst (USA, Canada). See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1966JRASC..60..257H  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1966, Nov 17

Leonid Fireball over Table Mountain Observatory (Angeles National Forest, Wrightwood, CA, USA).

See: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap981113.html

 

1967, Feb 5

Vilna Fireball and Airburst (Alberta, Canada).

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1969JRASC..63...61F http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1967, Jun

The largest know meteorite, the Hoba meteorite, lies on the farm "Hoba West", not far from Grootfontein, in the Otjozondjupa Region of Namibia. It has been uncovered in 1920, but, because of its large mass, has never been moved from where it fell. The main mass is estimated at 54,000 kg, and it is the largest known meteorite (as a single piece) and the most massive naturally-occurring piece of iron known at the Earth's surface. The Hoba meteorite is thought to have landed less than 80,000 years ago. It is inferred that the Earth's atmosphere slowed the object down to the point that it fell to the surface at terminal velocity, thereby remaining intact and causing little excavation. The Hoba meteorite is unusual in that it is flat on both major surfaces, possibly causing it to have skipped across the top of the atmosphere in the way a flat stone skips on water. Size: 2.7 × 2.7 × 0.9 m.

Ref:

- J.D. Fernie, 1967, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 61, 127, "Journey via Otjiwarongo. A trip to the Hoba Meteorite." See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1967JRASC..61..127F  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoba_meteorite  

 

1968

European Fireball Network established.

Ref:

- P. Spurný, J. Boroviča, L. Shrbený, 2007, in: A. Milani, G.B. Valsecchi & D. Vokrouhlický (eds.), Proc. IAU Symposium No. 236 on Near Earth Objects, our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, Prague (Czech Republic), 14-18 August 2006 (Cambridge: CUP), p. 121, "Automation of the Czech part of the European Fireball Network: equipment, methods and first results."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IAUS..236..121S

See also:

http://www.dlr.de/pf/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-623/1043_read-26813/  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Fireball_Network  

 

1968

C.S. Beals, 1968, Contributions Dominion Observatory Ottawa, 4(29), 1, "Theories of the origin of Hudson Bay. I. On the possibility of a catastrophic origin for the great arc of eastern Hudson Bay."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1968CoDAO...4....1B

 

1968, Jan

G.W. Wetherill, J.G. Williams, 1968, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73, 635, "Evaluation of the Apollo asteroids as sources of stone meteorites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1968JGR....73..635W

 

1968, Apr 23

Asteroid 2008 GD110 (H = 24.5 mag, D ≈ 53 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.60 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.15 LD.

See: 2008 GD110 - JPL , 2008 GD110 - SSA

 

1968, May 15

Asteroid 2010 JR34 (H = 27.7 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.09 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.91 LD.

See: 2010 JR34 -JPL , 2010 JR34 - SSA

 

1968, Jun 14

Asteroid 1566 Icarus (1949 MA, H = 16 mag, D = 1300 m, PHA) passed Earth at 16.53 LD. Observed by radar by NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar (CA, USA) and the MIT Haystack Observatory (Westfort, MA, USA).

See:

1949 MA - JPL , 1566 Icarus - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1566_Icarus  

Ref:

- R.M. Goldstein, 1968, Science, 162, 903, "Radar observations of Icarus."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1968Sci...162..903G

- B.G. Marsden, 1998, Boston Sunday Globe, 29 March 1989, "How the asteroid story hit: an astronomer reveals how a discovery spun out of control."

See: http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/iau/pressinfo/1997XF11Globe.html  

See also: 16 Jun 2015, 14 Jun 2090.

 

1968, Dec 16

Asteroid 2015 XA378  (H = 25.9 mag, D ≈ 8 m) will pass Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.77 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.61 LD.

See: 2015 XA378  - SSA , 2015 XA378  - JPL

See also: 1 June 2053.

 

1968, Dec 28

Asteroid 2014 YW14 (H = 27.6 mag, D ≈ 13 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.64 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.60 LD.

See: 2014 YW14 - JPL , 2014 YW14 - SSA

 

1969, Feb 8

Chihuahua Fireball, witnessed falling over the Mexican State of Chihuahua. After breaking up in the atmosphere, an extensive search for pieces was conducted; it is often described as "the best-studied meteorite in history." Some 2000 kg of meteorite material has been collected. The largest piece found, the Allende meteorite of 0.520 kg, is notable for possessing abundant, large calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, which are among the oldest objects formed in the Solar System. The 238U/235U isotope ratio found in the Allende meteorite by Brennecka et al. (2010) implies that the Solar System is some 5 million years younger than thought previously.

See : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allende_meteorite

Ref:

- G.A. Brennecka, S. Weyer, M. Wadhwa, et al., 2010, Science, 327, 449, "238U/235U variations in meteorites: extant 247Cm and implications for Pb-Pb dating."

See: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/327/5964/449

- Chi Ma, O. Tschauner, J.R. Beckett, et al., 2012, American Mineralogist, 97, 1219, "Panguite, (Ti4+,Sc,Al,Mg,Zr,Ca)1.8O3, a new ultra-refractory titania mineral from the Allende meteorite: synchrotron micro-diffraction and EBSD."

See: http://www.its.caltech.edu/~chima/publications/2012_AM_buseckite.pdf

http://media.caltech.edu/press_releases/13524

 

1969, Sep 28

Murchison Fireball and Meteorite. Near the town of Murchison (Victoria, Australia), a bright fireball was observed to separate into three fragments before disappearing, leaving a cloud of smoke. About 30 seconds later, a tremor was heard. Many specimens were found over an area larger than 13 km², with individual masses up to 7 kg; one piece, weighing 680 g, broke through a roof. The total collected mass exceeds 100 kg.

Ref:

- P. Schmitt-Kopplin, Z. Gabelica, R.D. Gougeon, et al., 2010, Proc. Nat Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 2763, "High molecular diversity of extraterrestrial organic matter in Murchison meteorite revealed 40 years after its fall."

See: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/02/12/0912157107.abstract

- S. Pizzarello, August 2012, Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 754, L27, "Hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison Meteorite."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...754L..27P

See also:

http://tin.er.usgs.gov/meteor/metbull.php?code=16875  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=murchison-meteorite  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murchison_meteorite

 

1969, Dec

The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition discovered nine meteorites on the blue ice field of the Yamato Mountains in Antarctica, December 1969. This was the first significant recovery of Antarctic meteorites and represented samples of several different types. In 2011, co-researchers from the USA, South Korea and Japan have found in meteorite Yamato 691 a new mineral, dubbed "Wassonite", formed from sulfur and titanium, and possessing a unique crystal structure that has not been previously observed in nature.

Ref:

- T. Nagata, 30 June 1976, Meteoritics, 11, 181, "Yamato meteorites collected in Antarctica in 1969." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976Metic..11..181N  http://www.nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/wassonite.html  

 

1970, Jan 1

27 NEAs known, of which 10 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1970

First infrared diameter of an asteroid measured: 4 Vesta (H = 3.40 mag, D = 530 km, main-belt asteroid).

See: Vesta - JPL , 4 Vesta - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4_Vesta

Ref:

- D.A. Allen, 1970, Nature, 227, 158, "Infrared diameter of Vesta." See: http://nature.com/nature/journal/v227/n5254/abs/227158a0.html   

 

1970, Jan 3

Lost City Fireball. Four stations (Hominy OK, Woodward OK, Pleasanton KS, and Garden City KS) of the Prairie Meteorite Network simultaneously photographed the track of a meteoroid fireball. Analysis of the photographs indicated that a meteorite might have landed within an area east of Lost City (OK, USA). This was the first time in the US that simultaneous photography of a fireball from multiple observation points was achieved, making it possible to calculate a trajectory and delimit a search area on the ground. Six days later, a 9.83 kg (21.6 pound) meteorite was spotted sitting in a snow-covered dirt road within one-half mile of Lost City. Three additional smaller meteorite fragments were recovered later (272 g, 640 g, 6.6 kg).

Ref:

- Z. Ceplecha, 1996, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 311, 329, "Luminous efficiency based on photographic observations of the Lost City fireball and implications for the influx of interplanetary bodies onto Earth."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996A%26A...311..329C  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_City,_Oklahoma

 

1970, Jan 24

C.S. Beals, 1970, Nature, 225, 368, "Impact craters and the relative ages of Earth and Moon."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970Natur.225..368B

 

1970, Oct

C.J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, P. Herget & T. Gehrels, 1970, Astronomy & Astrophysics Suppl., 2, 339, "The Palomar-Leiden Survey of faint Minor Planets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970A%26AS....2..339  

 

1971, Feb 4

Asteroid 2016 CE  (H = 28.5 mag, D ≈ 8 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.86 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.58 LD.

See: 2016 CE - JPL , 2016 CE - SSA

See also: 5 Feb 2056.

 

1971, Mar 6-10

IAU Colloquium No. 12 on Physical Studies of Minor Planets, Tucson (AZ, USA), 6-10 March 1971. Proceedings: T. Gehrels (ed.), 1971, NASA SP-267, "Physical studies of minor planets." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1971NASSP.267.....G

 

1971, Apr 2

Asteroid 2015 FA285 (H = 26.1 mag, D ≈ 25 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.81 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.73 LD.

See: 2015 FA285 - JPL , 2015 FA285 - SSA

 

1971, Apr 3

Asteroid 2014 GC49 (H = 28.6 mag, D ≈ 8 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.04 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.59 LD.

See: 2014 GC49 - JPL , 2014 GC49 - SSA

 

1971, Apr 11

Asteroid 2002 JE9 (H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 235 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.62 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.59 LD.

See: 2002 JE9 - JPL , 2002 JE9 - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_JE9

See also: 10 Apr 1927.

 

1972

V.L. Masajtis, M.V. Mikhajlov, T.V. Selivanovskaya, 1972, Meteoritics, 7(1), 39, "The Popigay meteorite crater."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972IGRv...14..327M

 

1972

V.L. Masaitis, M.V. Mikhailov, T.V. Selivanovskaya, 1972, Int. Geol. Rev., 14, 327, "Popigai Basin -- an explosion meteorite crater."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972Metic...7...39M

 

1972, Mar

D.J. Milton, B.C. Barlow, R. Brett, et al., 1972, Science, 175, 1199, "Gosses Bluff impact structure, Australia."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972Sci...175.1199M  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gosses_Bluff_crater

 

1972, Aug 10

Great Daylight 1972 Fireball (US19720810), Earth-grazing asteroid, estimated D ≈ 3-14 m, 100-sec passage with 15 km/s through the Earth atmosphere, 57 km high over the Rocky Mountains from Utah (USA) to Alberta (Canada). Co-inciding with the annual Perseid meteor shower. Suggestions that this object is still in an Earth crossing orbit around the Sun and passed close to the Earth again in August 1997 have not been substantiated (Spahr, 2010, private communication).

Ref:

- R.D. Rawcliffe, C.D. Bartky, F. Li, et al., 1974, Nature, 247, 449, "Meteor of August 10, 1972."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1974Natur.247..449R

- E.J. Öpik, 1974, Irish Astronomical Journal, 11, 165, "A meteorite that got away."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1974IrAJ...11..165O  

- A.C. Clarke, 1993, in preface of his novel The Hammer of God (New York: Bantam Books).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hammer_of_God  

- E. Tagliaferri, 1998, Mercury, Vol. 27, no. 6, p. 18, "Observation of meteoroid impacts by space-based sensors."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Mercu..27f..18T  

- Z. Ceplecha, 1994, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 283, 287, "Earth-grazing daylight fireball of August 10, 1972."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994A%26A...283..287C

See also: http://web.archive.org/web/20050120051405/www.maa.agleia.de/Comet/Other/1972.html  

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap090302.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Daylight_1972_Fireball  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth-grazing_fireball

 

1972, Oct 2

R.J. Ford, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 16, 228, "A possible impact crater associated with Darwin glass."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972E&PSL..16..228F

See also:

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn24560-meteor-impact-trapped-ancient-swamp-plants-in-glass.html#.UpZU6rB3tdg

 

1973, Jan

Eleanor F. Helin and Eugene M. Shoemaker begin photographic NEO searches using Palomar 46 cm (18 inch) telescope: the Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey (PCAS), 1973 – 1978. They took photographic plates 3 nights each month till 1978 and found first Earth orbit crosser (asteroid 5496 1973 NA, H = 15.9 mag, D 2.73 km) on 4 July 1973.

See: 1973 NA - JPL , 5496 1973 NA - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(5496)_1973_NA

Ref:

- E.F. Helin, E.M. Shoemaker, 1979, Icarus, 40, 321, "The Palomar Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey, 1973 – 1978."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979Icar...40..321H  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planet-Crossing_Asteroid_Survey

 

1973, Jan 17

Asteroid 2009 BH2 (H = 22.4 mag, D ≈ 142 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.88 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.11 LD.

See: 2009 BH2 - JPL , 2009 BH2 - SSA

 

1973, Jan 17

Asteroid 2016 YC8 (H = 24.6 mag, D ≈ 51 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.97 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.13 LD.

See: 2016 YC8 - JPL , 2016 YC8 - SSA

 

1973, Mar 13

Discovery of asteroid 1943 Anteros (1973 EC, H = 15.75 mag, D ≈ 2.48 km).

See: 1973 EC - JPL , 1973 EC - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1943_Anteros

See also: 6 February 2015, 23 May 2038, 20 May 2050.

 

1973, Oct

P.D. Zimmerman, G.W. Wetherill, 1973, Science, 182, 51, "Asteroidal source of meteorites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1973Sci...182...51Z  

 

1974, Feb 12

Asteroid 2017 CP32 (H = 24.0 mag, D ≈ 67 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.09 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.45 LD.

See: 2017 CP32 - JPL , 2017 CP32 - SSA

See also: 12 Feb 2061.

 

1974, Mar 16

Asteroid 2012 EN5 (H = 27.3 mag, D ≈ 15 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.10 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.31 LD.

See: 2012 EN5 -JPL , 2012 EN5 - SSA

 

1974, May 7

Asteroid 2014 HB177 (H = 28.3 mag, D ≈ 9 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.92 LD. Minimum miss distance  0.0042 LD (= 0.25 REarth from the geocenter).

See: 2014 HB177 - JPL , 2014 HB177 - SSA

See also: 6 May 2014, 6 May 2034.

 

1975

G.W. Wetherill, 1975, in: Proc. 6th Lunar Science Conference, Houston (TX, USA), 17-21 March 1975, Vol. 2 (New York: Pergamon Press, Inc.), p. 1539, "Late heavy bombardment of the moon and terrestrial planets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975LPSC....6.1539W  

 

1975, Jan 23

Asteroid 433 Eros (1898 DQ, H = 10.3 mag, D = 34.4 × 11.2 × 11.2 km, orbital P = 1.76 yr, Amor asteroid), passed Earth at 59 LD (= 0.15 AU).

See: 1898 DQ - JPL , 433 Eros - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/433_Eros

See also: 13 Aug 1898, 31 Jan 2012.

 

1975, Mar 25

Asteroid 2012 FT35 (H = 29.3 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.83 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.80 LD.

See: 2012 FT35 - JPL , 2012 FT35 - SSA

See also: 29 Mar 1925.

 

1975, Sep

A. Ben-Menahem, 1975, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 11, 1, "Source parameters of the Siberian explosion of June 30, 1908, from analysis and synthesis of seismic signals at four stations."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975PEPI...11....1B

 

1976

D. Morrison, 1976, Astronomy, 4, no. 6, p. 6, "Asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976Ast.....4f...6M  

 

1976, Jan 7

First discovery of an Aten asteroid (semi-major axis 1 AU), 2062 Aten (1976 AA, H = 17.1 mag, D = 1300 m), by Eleanor F. Helin (1932 – 2009, USA).

See:

1976 AA - JPL , 2062 Aten - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2062_Aten

Ref:

- E.F. Helin, E.M. Shoemaker, 1977, Icarus, 31, 415, "Discovery of asteroid 1976 AA".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1977Icar...31..415H  

 

1976, Jan 28

Gujarat Brilliant Fireball and Dhajala Meteorite Shower, India.

Ref:

- N. Bhandari, D. Lal, J.R. Trivedi, 1976, Meteoritics, 11, 137, "The Dhajala meteorite shower."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976Metic..11..137B

 

1976, Mar 8

Jilin Meteorite Shower, near Jilin City (Jilin Province, China), had a dispersion ellipse of 72 × 8.5 km and landed over 100 fragments with a total mass > 2700 kg. The largest of these fragments weighs 1770 kg and presents the largest stony meteorite known.

Ref:

- K. Yau, P. Weissman, D. Yeomans, 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 864, "Meteorite falls in China and some related human casualty events."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..864Y  http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/J/Jilin.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteorite_fall   

 

1976, Mar 29

Asteroid 2014 GY44 (H = 25.4 mag, D ≈ 35 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.19 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.17 LD.

See: 2014 GY44 - JPL , 2014 GY44 - SSA

 

1976, Oct 17

Asteroid 2013 UG1 (H = 22.2 mag, D ≈ 149 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.85 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.85 LD.

See: 2013 UG1 - JPL , 2013 UG1 - SSA

See also: 17 Oct 2013 , 17 Oct 2065.

 

1976, Dec

Z. Ceplecha, R.E. McCrosky, 1976, Journal of Geophysical Research, 81, 6257, "Fireball end heights – a diagnostic for the structure of meteoric material."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976JGR....81.6257C

 

1977, Sep 13

Asteroid 2012 EP10 (H = 29.2 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 3.52 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.18 LD.

See: 2012 EP10 - JPL , 2012 EP10 - SSA

 

1977, Oct 13

Asteroid 2011 GA (H = 20.9 mag, D ≈ 273 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.70 LD. Minimum miss distance 9.69 LD.

See: 2011 GA - JPL , 2011 GA - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_GA

 

1978

C.R. Chapman, J.G. Williams, W.K. Hartmann, 1978, Annual Review of Astronomy & Astrophysics, 16, 33, "The asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978ARA%26A..16...33C

 

1978

L'. Kresák, 1978, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 29, 103, "Passages of comets and asteroids near the earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978BAICz..29..103K

 

1978

L'. Kresák, 1978, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 29, 114, "The comet and asteroid population of the earth's environment."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978BAICz..29..114K

 

1978

L'. Kresák, 1978, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 29, 149, "The total number of the Apollo asteroids and their chance rediscoveries."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978BAICz..29..149K

 

1978

B.L. Narendra, 1978, Discovery 13(1), 10, "The Peabody Museum meteorite collection: a historic account."

See:

http://peabody.yale.edu/collections/meteorites-and-planetary-science/weston-meteorite  

http://peabody.yale.edu/collections/meteorites-and-planetary-science/wethersfield-meteorite

 

1978

G.L. Verschuur, 1978, Cosmic Catastrophes (Reading, MA, USA: Addison-Wesley Publ. Co.).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978coca.book.....V

 

1978, Apr 1

IAU Minor Planet Center moved to Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge (MA, USA). Brian G. Marsden, director. Up to this time, the set of numbered minor planets had increased to 2060, with nearly 180,000 observations in the archive.

See: http://www.oaa.gr.jp/~oaacs/mp/BriefHistoryofMPCbyConradBardwell.pdf  

http://www.iau.org/static/publications/IB104.pdf  , p. 67.

 

1978, Sep

E. Bowell, C.R. Chapman, J.C. Grady, D. Morrison, B. Zellner, 1978, Icarus, 35, 313, "Taxonomy of asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978Icar...35..313B

 

1979

T. Gehrels (ed.), 1979, Asteroids I (Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press). See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979aste.book.....G  

 

1979

E.J. Öpik, 1979, Irish Astronomical Journal, 14, 31, "Dinosaurs." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979IrAJ...14Q..31O  

 

1979, Feb

R.D. Rawcliffe, 1979, Astrophysical Journal, 228, 338, "Satellite observations of Meteors."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979ApJ...228..338

 

1979, Mar

G.W. Wetherill, 1979, Scientific American, 240, No. 3, 38, "Apollo objects."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979SciAm.240...54W

 

1979, Sep 2

Asteroid 2014 WX202 (H = 29.6 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.87 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.83 LD.

See: 2014 WX202 - JPL , 2014 WX202 - SSA

See also: 7 Dec 2014.

 

1979, Sep 22

The Vela Incident. Double flash explosion detected by an American Vela Hotel satellite over the South Atlantic caused by nuclear weapons test or meteoroid?

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vela_Incident

 

1979, Nov

W.M. Napier, S.V.M. Clube, 1979, Nature, 282, 455, "A theory of terrestrial catastrophism."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979Natur.282..455N

 

1979, Dec

E.F. Helin, E.M. Shoemaker, 1979, Icarus, 40, 321, "The Palomar planet-crossing asteroid survey, 1973-1978."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979Icar...40..321H

 

1979, Dec

H.H. Nininger, 1979, Meteoritics, 14, 497, "Small asteroids frequently arrive on the Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979Metic..14..497N  

 

1979, Dec 17

Asteroid 1979 XB (H = 18.5 mag, D ≈ 856 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 14.24 LD. Minimum miss distance 11.30 LD.

See: 1979 XB - JPL , 1979 XB - SSA

This asteroid may make a close Earth flyby on 14 Dec 2113.

 

1980, Jan 1

53 NEAs known, of which 17 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1980

Spacewatch program started by Tom Gehrels and Robert S. McMillan, LPL, UA, Tucson (AZ, USA). Routine detections started in 1984, survey started in 1989. CCD-scanning observations are conducted 20 nights each lunation with the Steward Observatory 0.9-m Spacewatch Telescope (down to v = 21 mag) and the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope (down to v = 23 mag), both on Kitt Peak (AZ, USA). From 1992 to 1995 Spacewatch automatically detected more than 60,000 asteroids down to v = 21 mag.

See: http://spacewatch.lpl.arizona.edu/

Ref:

- R.S. McMillan and The Spacewatch Team, 2007, in: A. Milani, G.B. Valsecchi & D. Vokrouhlický (eds.), Proc. IAU Symposium No. 236 on Near Earth Objects, our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, Prague (Czech Republic), 14-18 August 2006 (Cambridge: CUP), p. 329, "Spacewatch preparations for the era of deep all-sky surveys."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IAUS..236..329M   

- D.K. Yeomans, S.R. Chesley, P.W. Chodas, 2010, in: A.M. Finkelstein, W.F. Huebner & V.A. Shor (eds.), Proc. Intern. Conf. Asteroid-Comet Hazard 2009, Protecting the Earth against collisions with asteroids and comet nuclei, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation), 21-25 September 2009 (Saint Petersburg: Nauka), p. 244, "NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office."

See:

http://ftp://quasar.ipa.nw.ru/pub/ACHBOOK_2009/ach-2009_book.pdf http://www.skyandtelescope.com/news/125432648.html   

- R.S. McMillan, T.H. Bressi, J.V. Scotti, et al., 2012, American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #44, #210.14, "Spacewatch observations of Near-Earth Objects."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DPS....4421014M

See also:

http://spacewatch.lpl.arizona.edu/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacewatch

 

1980

E. Helin, D. Morrison, G. Wetherill, M. Hanner, 1980, Sky & Telescope, 60, 12, "IRAS and the asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980S%26T....60...12H

 

1980, May 17

Asteroid 2009 WW7 (H = 28.9 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.71 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.11 LD.

See: 2009 WW7 - JPL , 2009 WW7 - SSA

 

1980, Jun

Nobel Prize winning physicist Luiz W. Alvarez (1911 – 1988, USA) and colleagues published their seminal paper (1980), associating the extinction of dinosaurs ~65.5 Myr ago with the direct impact of a large asteroid or comet. Ten years later after this initial proposal, evidence of a huge impact crater called Chicxulub, off the coast of Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), strongly confirmed their theory. The crater center is located near the town Chicxulub. The crater diameter is over 180 km, maybe even 300 km, making the feature one of the largest confirmed impact craters on Earth. The crater was discovered by the geophysicist Glen Penfield, who had been looking for oil in Yucatán during the late-1970s. Returning later he found evidence for the impact theory (A.R. Hildebrand et al., 1991). The impacting NEO that formed the crater had a diameter D = 10 ± 4 km; the explosion released an energy of about 5 × 107 megaton TNT, substantially more powerful than the largest known volcanic eruption. W.F. Bottke et al. (2007) suggested that the impacting NEO was a member of the Baptistina family of asteroids, created by a collision of two main-belt asteroids (with D = 170 km and 60 km) 160 Myr ago, the largest surviving orbiting member of which is main-belt asteroid 298 Baptistina (D = 13-30 km), discovered in 1890 by Auguste H. Charlois (1864 – 1910) at the Observatoire de Nice (France). But see Masiero et al. (2011). Schulte et al. (2010) summarized evidence that the Chicxulub impact triggered the mass extinction ~65.5 year ago.

Ref:

- L. Alvarez, W. Alvarez, S. Klint, 1980, Science News, 117(2), 22, 12 January 1980, "Asteroid-caused extinctions." Correction: Science News, 117(6), .., 9 February 1980.

See:

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/188305/title/Now_--_Asteroid-Caused_Extinctions  http://www.sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/177017/title/Correction_Now_--_Asteroid-Caused_Extinctions  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980SciN..117...22A

- J. Smit, J. Hertogen, 1980, Nature, 225, 198, 22 May 1980, "An extraterrestrial event in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980Natur.285..198S  

- L.W. Alvarez, W. Alvarez, F. Asaro, H.V. Michel, 1980, Science, 208, 1095, 6 June 1980, "Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous–Tertiary [K-T] extinction."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980Sci...208.1095A   

- J. Smit, J. Hertogen, L.W. Alvarez, W. Alvarez, F. Asaro, H.V. Michel, E.M. Shoemaker, 1980, Sky & Telescope, 80, 188, "Fresh light on an ancient catastrophe – Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980S%26T....60R.188S  

- D.V. Kent, G.C. Reid, R.E. Brown, L.W. Alvarez, et al. 1981, Science, 211, 648, 13 February 1981, "Asteroid extinction hypothesis."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Sci...211..648K

- J. Smit, G. Klaver, 1981, Nature, 292, 47, 2 July 1981, "Sanadine spherules at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary indicate a large impact event." See: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v292/n5818/abs/292047a0.html  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Natur.292...47S

- R.P. Turco, O.B. Toon, C. Park, et al., 1981, Science, 214, 19, "Tunguska meteor fall of 1908 – effects on stratospheric ozone." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Sci...214...19T

- R.A.F. Grieve, 1984, Nature, 310, 370, "Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions: physical evidence of impact."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Natur.310..370G

- A.R. Hildebrand, G.T. Penfield, D.A. Kring, et al., 1991, Geology, 19, 867, "Chicxulub Crater: A possible Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Natur.310..370G

- K.O. Pope, K.H. Baines, A.C. Ocampo, B.A. Ivanov, 1994, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 128, 719, "Impact winter and the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinctions: results of a Chicxulub asteroid impact model."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994E%26PSL.128..719P

- G.L. Verschuur, 1996, Impact! The threat of comets and asteroids (Oxford: OUP), Ch.2 "The saga of the Chicxulub Crater."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996itca.book.....V   

- P. Claeys, S. Goderis, 2007, Nature, 449, 30, "Lethal billiards." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Natur.449...30C

- W.F. Bottke, D. Vokrouhlický, D. Nesvorný, et al., 2007, Nature, 449, 48, "An asteroid breakup 160 Myr ago as the probable source of the K/T impactor."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Natur.449...48B   

- D.J. Majaess, D. Higgins, L.A. Molnar, et al., 2009, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 103, 7, "New constraints on the asteroid 298 Baptistina, the alleged family member of the K/T impactor."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JRASC.103....7M

- P. Schulte, L. Alegret, I. Arenillas, et al., 5 March 2010, Science, 327, 1214, "The Chicxulub asteroid impact and mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary."

See: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/327/5970/1214.abstract?sid=e1f5d964-44c1-471c-a76c-ee04a627676f

- J.D. Archibald, W.A. Clemens, K. Padian, et al., 21 May 2010, Science, 328, 973, "Cretaceous-Extinctions: multiple causes."

See: http://www.sciencemag.org/search?site_area=sci&y=9&x=32&fulltext=Cretaceous-Extinctions%3A%20multiple%20causes&submit=yes  

- P. Schulte, L. Alegret, I. Arenillas, et al., 21 May 2010, Science, 328, 975, "Cretaceous-Extinctions: multiple causes / responses." See: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/328/5981/975.full

- J.R. Masiero, A.K. Mainzer, T. Grav, et al., 2011, Astrophysical Journal, 741, 68, "Main belt asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary albedos and diameters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...741...68M

- H. Pälike, 8 February 2013, Science, 339, 655, "Impact and extinction."

See: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6120/655.summary

- P.R. Renne, A.L. Deono, F.J. Hilgen, et al., 2013, Science, 339, 684, "Time scales of critical events around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary."

See: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6120/684.abstract

- A.E. Zlobin, 29 April 2013, e-print arXiv:1304.8070, "Discovery of probably Tunguska meteorites at the bottom of Khushmo river's shoal."

See: http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.8070

- J. Vellekoop, A. Sluijs, J. Smit, et al., 12 May 2014, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published ahead of print, "Rapid short-term cooling following the Chicxulub impact at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary."

See: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/05/08/1319253111.abstract?sid=d9e30190-2b8d-4c2e-bc69-b8920cf3c0c6

- A.E. Zlobin, 7 Aug 2013, e-print arXiv: 1402.1408, "Tunguska similar impacts and origin of life."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014arXiv1402.1408Z 

See also:

http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/images/chicxulub.htm  http://www.colorado.edu/news/releases/2004/168.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extinction_event  http://www.jyi.org/volumes/volume5/issue6/features/weinreb.html  http://www.jyi.org/volumes/volume5/issue7/features/weinreb.html  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=asteroid-killed-dinosaurs  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070118094039.htm

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroidwatch/newsfeatures.cfm?release=2011-296  

http://www.space.com/19681-dinosaur-killing-asteroid-chicxulub-crater.html  

http://www.space.com/20354-dinosaur-extinction-caused-by-comet.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater

 

1980, Aug 5

Tajikistan Fireball, 5 August 1980, observed by the meteor observing stations operated by the Meteor Patrol of the Hissar Astronomical Observatory (Tajikistan) and Kipchak station.

Ref:

- N.A. Konovalova, J.M. Madiedo, J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez, 2013, LPI Contribution No. 1719, p. 1479, "Analysis of a large meteorite-dropping fireball from the Apollo NEA family."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013LPICo1719.1479K  

 

1980, Sep 23

Asteroid 2016 FW3 (H = 25.3 mag, D ≈ 37 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.36 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.14 LD.

See: 2016 FW3 - JPL , 2016 FW3 - SSA

See also: 23 Sep 2042.

 

1980, Sep 29

Asteroid 2011 TO (H = 26.3 mag, D ≈ 23 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.38 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.78 LD.

See: 2011 TO - JPL , 2011 TO - SSA

See also: 28 Sep 2011, 27 Sep 2044.

 

1981, May 7

R.A.F. Grieve, 1981, Nature, 291, 16, "Impact cratering."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Natur.291...16G  

 

1981, May 18

Asteroid 143651 (2003 QO104, H = 16.0 mag, D 2290 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 2.76 LD. Minimum miss distance 2.76 LD.

See: 2003 QO104 - JPL , 143651 2003 QO104 - SSA

 

1981, Jul 13-16

First NASA NEO workshop on Collision of Asteroids and Comets with the Earth: Physical and Human Consequences, Snowmass (CO, USA), chaired by Eugene M. Shoemaker. Report never published.

Ref:

- D. Chandler, 2008, Nature, 453, 1164, "The burger bar that saved the world." 

See: http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080625/full/4531164a.html

 

1981, Oct 12-22

First Snowbird Conference on Large Body Impacts and Terrestrial Evolution: Geological, Climatological, and Biological Implications, Snowbird (Utah, USA).

See: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lpi_40th/1981.shtml

 

1981, Nov

C. Emiliani, E.B. Kraus, E.M. Shoemaker, 1981, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 55, 317, "Sudden death at the end of Mesozoic."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981E%26PSL..55..317E

 

1981, Nov

G.W. Wetherill, 1981, Icarus, 48, 308, "Which fireballs are meteorites – a study of the Prairie Network photographic meteor data."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Icar...48..308W

 

1982

L.T. Silver, P.H. Schulz (eds.), 1982, Proc., Geological implications of impacts of large asteroids and comets on the Earth, Geological Society of America Special Papers, Vol. 190.

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/190 

 

1982, Nov 4

Asteroid 2012 TY52 (H = 21.3 mag, D ≈ 234 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.82 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.81 LD.

See: 2012 TY52 - JPL , 2012 TY52 - SSA

 

1982, Nov 8

The Wethersfield Fireball and Meteorite.

See: http://peabody.yale.edu/collections/meteorites-and-planetary-science/wethersfield-meteorite  

 

1983

E.M. Shoemaker, 1983, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science, 11, 461, "Asteroid and comet bombardment of the Earth." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983AREPS..11..461S

 

1983

Discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, formed by a bolide that impacted the eastern shore of North America ~35 million years ago. It is the largest impact crater in the USA.

Ref:

- Wuchang Wei, C.W. Poag, L.J. Poppe, et al., 1993, Geology, 21, 478, "Deep sea drilling Project Site 612 bolide event: new evidence of a late Eocene impact-wave deposit and a possible impact site, U.S. east coast: comment and reply."

See: http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/478>  

- C. Koeberl, W.U. Reimold, D. Brandt, C.W. Poag, 1995, Meteoritics, 30, 528, "Chesapeake Bay crater, Virginia: confirmation of impact origin."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30R.528K  

See also:

http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/epubs/bolide/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chesapeake_Bay_impact_crater

 

1983, Jun 20-22

International conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, Uppsala (Sweden). Proceedings: C.-I. Lagerkvist & H. Rickman, 1983, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors (Uppsala: Astronomiska Observatoriet).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983acmp.book.....L

 

1983, Oct 11

Asteroid 3200 Phaethon (1983 TB, H = 13.9 mag, D = 5100 m, M = 1.4 × 1014 kg, PHA) discovered by IRAS. It approaches the Sun closer than any other numbered asteroid: its perihelion is 0.14 AU, i.e., less than half Mercury's perihelion distance. Phaethon is possibly an old comet core. Its closest approach to Earth within the next 190 yr will occur on 14 December 2093 at 7.7 LD.

See:

1983 TB - JPL  , 3200 Phaethon - SSA

Ref:

- J. Davies, S.F. Gree, C.M. Bardwell, et al., 1983, IAU Circular 3860, "Comet IRAS (1983o)."

See: http://cepsar.open.ac.uk/pers/s.f.green/p4_6.shtml  

- J. Licandro, H. Campins, T. Mothé-Diniz, et al., 2007, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 461, 751, "The nature of comet-asteroid transition object (3200) Phaethon."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007A%26A...461..751L  

- J. de León, H. Campins, K. Tsiganis, et al., 2010, Astronomy & Astrophysics,  513, 26, "Origin of the near-Earth asteroid Phaethon and the Geminids meteor shower."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...513A..26D   

- D. Jewitt, J. Li, 2010, Astronomical Journal, 140, 1519, "Activity in Geminid parent (3200) Phaethon."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AJ....140.1519J

- J. Li, D. Jewitt, June 2013, Astronomical Journal, 145, 9, "Recurrent perihelion activity in (3200) Phaethon."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AJ....145..154L

See also:

http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/iauc/03800/03878.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geminids  

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2010/06dec_geminids/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3200_Phaethon

 

1984

The 0.9-m Spacewatch Telescope became the first telescope to detect and discover asteroids and comets with electronic detectors (CCDs, as opposed to photographic plates or films).

See: http://spacewatch.lpl.arizona.edu/

 

1984, Jan

Z. Sekanina, D.K. Yeomans, 1984, Astronomical Journal, 89, 154, "Close encounters and collisions of comets with the earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984AJ.....89..154S

 

1984, Jan 10

Asteroid 2016 TB57 (H = 26.1 mag, D ≈ 26 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.77 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.76 LD.

See: 2016 TB57 - JPL , 2016 TB57 - SSA

 

1984, May 24

J.K. Davies, S.F. Green, B.C. Stewart, et al., 1984, Nature, 309, 315, "The IRAS fast-moving object search."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Natur.309..315D

 

1984, Jul

C.J. van Houten, P. Herget, B.G. Marsden, 1984, Icarus, 59, 1, "The Palomar-Leiden Survey of Faint Minor Planets – conclusion."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Icar...59....1V

 

1984, Jul 26

Asteroid 2014 SP142 (H = 21.8 mag, D ≈ 183 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.61 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.69 LD.

See: 2014 SP142 - JPL , 2014 SP142 - SSA

See also: 26 Jul 1989.

 

1984, Aug

H.J. Melosh, 1984, Icarus, 59, 234, "Impact ejection, spallation, and the origin of meteorites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Icar...59..234M

 

1985

Fred L. Whipple (1906 – 2004, USA): Protection of the Earth from undesirable impacting bodies is not just a science fiction project for some improbable future. The cost might be comparable to, even smaller than, the world’s current military expenditures. We could choose to do it now. We could choose to protect ourselves from asteroids and comets rather than from each other.” Ref: F.L. Whipple, 1985, The Mystery of Comets (Baltimore: Smithsonian Institution Press).

 

1985, Feb

D.I. Steel, W.J. Baggaley, 1985, Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society, 212, 817, "Collisions in the Solar System. I. Impacts of the Apollo-Amor-Aten asteroids upon the terrestrial planets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985MNRAS.212..817S

 

1985, Feb 11

Asteroid 2012 PB20 (H = 24.9 mag, D ≈ 44 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.23 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.85 LD.

See: 2012 PB20 - JPL , 2012 PB20 - SSA

 

1985, Mar

G. Hahn, H. Rickman, 1985, Icarus, 61, 417, "Asteroids in cometary orbits."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Icar...61..417H

 

1985, Mar

G.W. Wetherill, 1985, Meteoritics, vol. 20,1, "Asteroidal source of ordinary chondrites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Metic..20....1W

 

1985, May 17

G.W. Wetherill, 1985, Science, 228, 877, "Occurrence of giant impacts during the growth of the terrestrial planets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Sci...228..877W

 

1985, Jun 3-6

International conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, II, Uppsala (Sweden). Proceedings: C.-I. Lagerkvist, H. Rickman, B.A. Lindblad, H. Lundstedt, 1986, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors II (Uppsala: Astronomiska Observatoriet).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986acm..proc.....L

 

1985, Jul 12

L.A. McFadden, M.J. Gaffey, Th.B. Mccord, 1985, Science, 229, 160, "Near-Earth Asteroids: possible sources from reflectance spectroscopy."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Sci...229..160M

 

1985, Sep 2

Asteroid 371660 (2007 CN26, H = 21.1 mag, D ≈ 250 m, PHA) passed Earth at at a nominal miss distance of 1.05 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.05 LD.

See: 2007 CN26 - JPL , 371660 2007 CN26 - SSA

 

1985, Nov 28

I. Halliday, A.T. Blackwell, A.A. Griffin, 28 November 1985, Nature, 318, 317, "Meteorite impacts on humans and buildings." See: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v318/n6044/abs/318317a0.html 

 

1985, Dec

S.F. Green, N. Eaton, A.J. Meadows, J.K. Davies, B.C. Stewart, 1985, Icarus, 64, 517, "The detection of fast-moving asteroids and comets by IRAS."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Icar...64..517G

 

1985, Dec

R.A.F. Grieve, V.L. Sharpton, A.K. Goodacre, 1985, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 76, 1, "A perspective on the evidence for periodic cometary impacts on Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985E%26PSL..76....1G

 

1986

D.L. Matson, 1986, The IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey, JPL D-3689 (Pasadena: JPL).

See: http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/IRASdocs/surveys/comet.html

 

1986, Jan

D.I. Steel, W.G. Elford, 1986, Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society, 218, 185, "Collisions in the Solar System. III. Meteoroid survival times."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986MNRAS.218..185S

 

1986, Mar 13

ESA spacecraft Giotto flyby of comet Halley.

Ref:

- J. Kissel, D.E. Brownlee, K. Buchler, et al., 1986, Nature, 321, 336, "Composition of comet Halley dust particles from Giotto observations."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986Natur.321..336K  

- G. Schwehm, 2006, ESA Bulletin, 125, 8, "Twenty years after Giotto - ESA's pioneering mission to comet Halley."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ESABu.125....8S

See also:

http://hubble.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=31876 http://hubble.esa.int/science-e/www/area/index.cfm?fareaid=15  http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Rosetta/SEMMA0YTVKG_0.html  http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMUAYJ4LOG_index_0.html  http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEM18PD1XOG_index_0.html

 

1986, Sep 22-25

R.N. Pugh, J.E. Allen, 1986, presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, American Museum of Natural History, New York (NY, USA), LPI Contribution 600, p.208, "Origing of the Willamette Meteorite."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986LPICo.600E.208P  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willamette_Meteorite

 

1986, Dec 15

Asteroid 2006 XR4 (H = 26.2 mag, D ≈ 25 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 8.88 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.98 LD.

See: 2006 XR4 - JPL , 2006 XR4 - SSA

 

1987

R.A.F. Grieve, 1987, Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 15, 245, "Terrestrial impact structures."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987AREPS..15..245G

 

1987, Jul

D.K. Yeomans, S.J. Ostro, P.W. Chodas, 1987, Astronomical Journal, 94, 189, "Radar astrometry of near-earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987AJ.....94..189Y

 

1987, Jul

Z. Ceplecha, P. Spurný, J. Bocek, et al., 1987, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 38, 211, "European Network fireballs photographed in 1978."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987BAICz..38..211C

 

1987, Jul

Z. Ceplecha, 1988, Bulletin of the Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 38, 222, "Geometric, dynamic, orbital and photometric data on meteoroids from photographic fireball networks."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987BAICz..38..222C

 

1988

T. Gehrels, 1988, On the Glassy Sea. An Astronomer's Journey (New York: American Institute of Physics), Ch. 16, p. 183, "Asteroid impacts and planet formation". Including the history of the 90 cm Spacewatch Telescope on Kitt Peak (AZ, USA).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988gsaa.book.....G  

 

1988, Feb 18

K.A. Maher, D.J. Stevenson, 1988, Nature, 331, 612, "Impact frustration of the origin of life."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Natur.331..612M

 

1988, Mar 8-11

International conference on Asteroids II, Tucson (AZ, USA). Proceedings: R.P. Binzel, T. Gehrels, & M.S. Matthews (eds.), 1989, Asteroids II (Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989aste.conf.....B

 

1988, Apr 21

H.J. Melosh, 1988, Nature, 332, 687, "The rocky road to panspermia."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Natur.332..687M

 

1988, Jul

Z. Ceplecha, 1988, Bulletin Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, 39, 221, "Earth's influx of different populations of sporadic meteoroids from photographic and television data."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988BAICz..39..221C

 

1988, Aug

T. Gehrels, 1988, in: Reports of Planetary Astronomy (NASA: Washington), p. 45, "CCD scanning for comets and asteroids." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988plas.rept...45G

 

1988, Oct

G.W. Wetherill, 1988, Icarus, vol. 76, 1, "Where do the Apollo objects come from?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Icar...76....1W

 

1988, Oct 16

Asteroid 2010 UK (H = 26.8 mag, D ≈ 18 m) passed Earth at at a nominal miss distance of 1.08 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.82 LD.

See: 2010 UK - JPL , 2010 UK - SSA

 

1988, Oct 20-22

Second Snowbird Conference on Global Catastrophes in Earth History: Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality, Snowbird (Utah, USA). Proc.: V.L. Sharpton & P.D. Ward (eds.), 1991, Geol. Soc. of America Special Paper, Vol. 247.

See: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lpi_40th/1988.shtml

 

1988, Oct 22

E.M. Shoemaker, C.S. Shoemaker, R.F. Wolfe, 1988, in: V.L. Sharpton & P.D. Ward (eds.), 1991, Proc. Second Snowbird Conference on Global Catastrophes in Earth History: Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality, Snowbird (Utah, USA), "Asteroid and comet flux in the neighbourhood of the Earth."

See: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lpi_40th/1988.shtml  

 

1989

T. Gehrels begins full NEO search operation using CCD drift-scan mode at the Spacewatch Telescope, on Kitt Peak (AZ, USA). See: http://spacewatch.lpl.arizona.edu/

 

1989

C.R. Chapman, D. Morrison, 1989, Cosmic Catastrophes (New York: Plenum).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989coca.book.....C

 

1989

H.J. Melosh, 1989, Impact cratering: a geologic process (New York: Oxford University Press).

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989icgp.book.....M  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989S%26T....78T.382M

 

1989

D.L. Matson, G.J. Veeder, E.F. Tedesco, L.A. Lebofsky, 1989, in: Asteroids II, R.P. Binzel, et al. (eds.), Proc. Conf. in Tucson (AZ, USA) 8-11 March 1988, (Univ. Arizona Press), p. 269, "The IRAS asteroid and comet survey".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989aste.conf..269M  

A total of 1811 asteroids and 25 comets with known orbits were measured. Evidence was found in the IRAS data base for a large population of asteroids with unknown orbits.

See also:

D.L. Matson, IPAC, JPL D-3698, 1986, http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/IRASdocs/surveys/comet.html

 

1989

Conrad M. Bardwell (1926 – 2010), Temmon Guide, 1989, "A brief history of the Minor Planet Center."

See: http://www.oaa.gr.jp/~oaacs/mp/BriefHistoryofMPCbyConradBardwell.pdf

 

1989, Jan 4

Re-discovery of the largest known PHA: 4179 Toutatis, 1989 AC (H = 15.3 mag, D = 4.6×2.4×1.9 km, P = 4.03 yr). It was first sighted on February 10, 1934, as object 1934 CT, and then promptly lost. Re-discovery on January 4, 1989, by Christian Pollas (France), and was named after the Celtic god Toutatis/Teutates, known to popular culture as the God the cartoon character Astérix's chief Vitalstatistix evokes so that the sky may never fall on his head. Radar imagery has shown

that Toutatis is a irregular body consisting of two distinct "lobes", with maximum widths of about 4.6 km and 2.4 km respectively. It is hypothesized that Toutatis formed from two originally separate bodies which coalesced at some point, with the resultant asteroid being compared to a "rubble pile".

See:

1989 AC - JPL , 4179 Toutatis - SSA

Ref:

- J.-L. Heudier, R. Chemin, A. Maury, C. Pollas, January 1989, IAU Circ., 4701, 2, "1989 AC."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989IAUC.4701....2H

- S.J. Ostro, R.S. Hudson, R.F. Jurgens, et al., 1995, Science, 270, 80, "Radar images of asteroid 4179 Toutatis."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Sci...270...80O

- R.S. Hudson, S.J. Ostro, 1995, Science, 270, 84, "Shape and non-principal axis spin state of asteroid 4179 Toutatis."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Sci...270...84H   

- D.J. Scheeres, S.J. Ostro, R.S. Hudson, et al., 1998, Icarus, 132, 53, "Dynamics of orbits close to asteroid 4179 Toutatis."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Icar..132...53S   

- S.J. Ostro, R.S. Hudson, K.D. Rosema, et al., 1999, Icarus, 137, 122, "Asteroid 4179 Toutatis: 1996 radar observations."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Icar..137..122O   

- R.S. Hudson, S.J. Ostro, D.J. Scheeres, 2003, Icarus, 161, 346, "High-resolution model of asteroid 4179 Toutatis."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Icar..161..346H

- A.M. MacRobert, 2004, Sky & Telescope, 108 (3), 82, "The Closest Whiz-by of Toutatis."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004S%26T...108c..82M  http://br.groups.yahoo.com/group/Astronomynews/message/5177

See also:

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2000/ast31oct_1/  http://newton.dm.unipi.it/neodys/index.php?pc=1.1.8&n=Toutatis  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toutatis-4179

 

1989, Mar

G.W. Wetherill, 1989, Meteoritics, 24, 15, "Cratering of the terrestrial planets by Apollo objects."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Metic..24...15W

 

1989, Mar 2

Asteroid 2016 DV1 (H = 24.8 mag, D ≈ 47 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 6.69 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.05 LD.

See: 2016 DV1 - JPL , 2016 DV1 - SSA

See also: 3 Mar 2016.

 

1989, Mar 22

Asteroid 4581 Asclepius (1989 FC, H = 20.7 mag, D ≈ 299 m, PHA) passed Earth at at a nominal miss distance of 1.78 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.78 LD.

The next pass to come within 3 LD will not take place until 2189.

See: 1989 FC - JPL , 4581 Asclepius - SSA

Ref:

- C.R. Chapman, D. Morrison, E. Bowell, 1989, in: 52nd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 31 July 31 – 4 August, Vienna (Austria), LPI Contr. 712, Meteoritics, 24, 258, "Hazards from Earth-approachers: implications of 1989 FC's 'Near Miss'."

See also:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989LPICo.712...33C  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Metic..24S.258C   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4581_Asclepius

See also: 16 Aug 2012, 24 Mar 2051.

 

1989, Apr

G. Hahn, P. Magnusson, A.W. Harris, et al., 1989, Icarus, 78, 363, "Physical studies of Apollo-Amor asteroids - UBVRI photometry of 1036 Ganymed and 1627 Ivar."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Icar...78..363H  

 

1989, Apr

A. Milani, M. Carpino, G. Hahn, A.M. Nobili, 1989, Icarus, 78, 212, "Dynamics of planet-crossing asteroids – classes of orbital behaviour. Project SPACEGUARD."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Icar...78..212M

 

1989, Apr

G.J. Veeder, M.S. Hanner, D.L. Matson, et al., 1989, Astronomical Journal, 97, 1211, "Radiometry of Near-Earth Asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989AJ.....97.1211V

 

1989, May

S. van den Bergh, 1989, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 101, 500, "Life and death in the inner solar system."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PASP..101..500V  http://www.astronomynotes.com/solfluf/s5.htm

 

1989, Jun 12-16

International conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, III, Uppsala (Sweden). Proceedings: C.-I. Lagerkvist, H. Rickman, B.A. Lindblad, & M. Lindgren, 1990, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors III (Uppsala: Astronomiska Observatoriet). See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990acmi.book.....L

 

1989, Jul 26

Asteroid 2014 SP142 (H = 21.8 mag, D ≈ 183 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 8.24 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.65 LD.

See: 2014 SP142 - JPL , 2014 SP142 - SSA

See also: 27 Jul 1984.

 

1989, Aug 1

Asteroid 2014 LJ21 (H = 16.0 mag, D ≈ 2594 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.06 LD. Minimum miss distance 6.05 LD.

See: 2014 LJ21 - JPL , 2014 LJ21 - SSA

 

1989, Aug 19-22

First-ever radar images of an asteroid: 4769 Castalia (1989 PB, NEA, H = 16.9 mag, D = 1.8 × 0.8 km, PHA) obtained with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope by Steven J. Ostro (1946 – 2008) of NASA JPL, Pasadena (CA, USA) and R. Scott Hudson of Caltech, Pasadena. At the time of observation the distance to 4769 Castalia was d = 11 LD.

See:

1989 PB - JPL , 4769 Castalia - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4769_Castalia

Ref:

- S.J. Ostro, J.F. Chandler, A.A. Hine, et al., 1990, Science, 248, 1523, "Radar images of asteroid 1989 PB."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Sci...248.1523O  

As of May 2008, Ostro and his collaborators had detected 222 NEAs (including 130 PHAs and 24 binaries) and 118 main-belt objects with radar.

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=180  

 

1989, Nov

J. Luu, D. Jewitt, 1989, Astronomical Journal, 98, 1905, "On the relative numbers of C types and S types among near-earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989AJ.....98.1905L

 

1989, Nov 4

Asteroid 2015 JJ (H = 22.1 mag, D ≈ 160 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 9.12 LD. Minimum miss distance 9.12 LD.

See : 2015 JJ - SSA , 2015 JJ - SSA

See also: 5 Nov 2050.

 

1989, Nov 6

D.M. Raup, P.A. Sabine, P. Ashmole, et al., 1989, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, series B, Biological Sciences, vol. 325, No. 1228, Evolution and Extinction, p. 421, "The case for extraterrestrial causes of extinction."

See: 

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989RSPTB.325..421R  http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/2396933.pdf?acceptTC=true  

 

1989, Nov 9

N.H. Sleep, K.J. Zahnle, J.F. Kasting, H.J. Morowitz, 1989, Nature, 342, 139, "Annihilation of ecosystems by large asteroid impacts on the early Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Natur.342..139S

 

1989, Dec

C.R. Chapman, D. Morrison, 1989, Mercury, 18, 185, "Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Mercu..18..185C

 

1990, Jan 1

134 NEAs known, of which 42 PHAs.

See: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/

 

1990

V.L. Sharpton, P.D. Ward (eds.), 1990, Proc. Global catastrophes in earth history; an interdisciplinary conference on impacts, volcanism, and mass mortality, …, …., 20-23 October 1988, Geological Society of America Special Papers, Vol. 247.

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247

Among the articles:

- K.W. Flessa, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 1, "The “facts” of mass extinctions."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/1.abstract

- R.B. Stothers, M.R. Rampino, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 9, "Periodicity in flood basalts, mass extinctions, and impacts; A statistical view and a model."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/9.abstract

- D.E. Loper,  K.McCartney, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 19, "On impacts as a cause of geomagnetic field reversals or flood basalts."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/19.abstract

- D.M. Raup, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 27, "Impact as a general cause of extinction; A feasibility test "

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/27.abstract

- C.J. Orth,  M. Attrep, L.R. Quintana, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 45, "Iridium abundance patterns across bio-event horizons in the fossil record."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/45.abstract

- KJ. Hsü, J.A. McKenzie, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 61, "Carbon-isotope anomalies at era boundaries; Global catastrophes and their ultimate cause."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/61.abstract

- S.A. Davenport,  T.J. Wdowiak,  D.D. Jones,  P.Wdowiak, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 71, "Chondritic metal toxicity as a seed stock kill mechanism in impact-caused mass extinctions."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/71.abstract

- W. Alvarez, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 93, "Interdisciplinary aspects of research on impacts and mass extinctions; A personal view."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/93.abstract

- U.B. Marvin, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 147, "Impact and its revolutionary implications for geology."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/147.abstract

- E.M. Shoemaker, R.F. Wolfe, C.S. Shoemaker, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 1, "Asteroid and comet flux in the neighborhood of Earth."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/155.abstract

- P.R. Weissman, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 171, "The cometary impactor flux at the Earth."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/171.abstract

- N.G. Barlow, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 181, "Application of the inner Solar System cratering record to the Earth."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/181.abstract

- R. Rocchia,  P. Bonté,  C.Jéhanno, et al., 1990, GSA SP, 247, 189, "Search for the Tunguska event relics in the Antarctic snow and new estimation of the cosmic iridium accretion rate."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/189.abstract

- H.E. Newsom,  G. Graup,  D.A. Iseri, et al., 1990, GSA SP, 247, 195, "The formation of the Ries Crater, West Germany; Evidence of atmospheric interactions during a larger cratering event."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/195.abstract

- J.B. Hartung,  M.J. Kunk,  R.R. Anderson, et al., 1990, GSA SP, 247, 207, "Geology, geophysics, and geochronology of the Manson impact structure."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/207.abstract

- L.F. Jansa,  M--P. Aubry,  F.M. Gradstein, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 223, "Comets and extinctions; Cause and effect."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/223.abstract

- C. Koeberl,  V.L. Sharpton,  T.M.Harrison, et al., 1990, GSA SP, 247, 233, "The Kara/Ust-Kara twin impact structure; A large-scale impact event in the Late Cretaceous."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/233.abstract

- P.H. Schultz,  D.E. Gault, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 239, "Prolonged global catastrophes from oblique impacts."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/239.abstract

- C. Covey,  S.J. Ghan,  J.J. Walton,  P.R. Weissman, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 263, "Global environmental effects of impact-generated aerosols; Results from a general circulation model."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/263.abstract

- K.J. Zahnle, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 271, "Atmospheric chemistry by large impacts."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/271.abstract

- A.M. Vickery, H.J. Melosh, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 289, "Atmospheric erosion and impactor retention in large impacts, with application to mass extinctions."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/289.abstract

- V.L. Sharpton,  R.A.F. Grieve, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 301, "Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism; A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/301.abstract

- B.F. Bohor, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 335, "Shocked quartz and more; Impact signatures in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clays."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/335.abstract

- V.L. Sharpton,  B.C. Schuraytz, K. Burke, et al., 1990, GSA SP, 247, 349, "Detritus in K/T boundary clays of western North America; Evidence against a single oceanic impact."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/349.abstract

- E. Doehne, S.V. Margolis, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 367, "Trace-element geochemistry and mineralogy of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary; Identification of extraterrestrial components."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/367.abstract

- I. Gilmour,  W.S. Wolbach, E. Anders, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 383, "Early environmental effects of the terminal Cretaceous impact."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/383.abstract

- E. Thomas, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 481, "Late Cretaceous–early Eocene mass extinctions in the deep sea."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/481.abstract

- N. MacLeod, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 595, "Effects of late Eocene impacts on planktic foraminifera."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/595.abstract

- A. Montanari, 1990, GSA SP, 247, 607, "Geochronology of the terminal Eocene impacts; An update."

See: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/247/607.abstract

 

1990

S.V.M. Clube, W.M. Napier, 1990, The Cosmic Winter (Oxford: Blackwell).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990cowi.book.....C

 

1990

From 1990 until its termination in 1996, Duncan Steel, director of Spaceguard Australia and Vice-President of The Spaceguard Foundation (see 26 March 1996), directed the southern hemisphere program Anglo-Australian Near Earth Asteroid Survey (AANEAS) for the discovery and tracking of near-Earth asteroids, based at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, using the UK 1.2m Schmidt Telescope.

Ref:

- D.I. Steel, R.H. McNaught, G.J. Garradd, D.J. Asher, K.S. Russell, 1997, Australian J. Astron., 7, 67, "AANEAS: a valedictory report."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AuJA....7...67S   http://users.tpg.com.au/users/tps-seti/spacegd4.html  

http://www.sis-group.org.uk/abstract/steel2.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Australian_Near-Earth_Asteroid_Survey  

 

1990

R.A.F. Grieve, 1990, Scientific American, 262(4), 66, "Impact cratering on the Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SciAm.262...44G

 

1990

E.F. Helin, R.S. Dunbar, 1990, Vistas in Astronomy, 33, 21, "Search techniques for near-earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990VA.....33...21H

 

1990, Feb

Chapman, C.R., Morrison, D., 1990, Mercury, 19, 21; 19, 30, "Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Mercu..19...21C

 

1990, Mar

D. Morrison, C.R. Chapman, 1990, Sky & Telescope, 79, 261, "Target Earth – it will happen."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990S%26T....79..261M

 

1990, Apr

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), recommendations concerning NEOs to US Congress in a Position Paper Dealing with the Threat of an Asteroid Striking the Earth. See: http://pdf.aiaa.org//downloads/publicpolicypositionpapers//Asteroid-1990.pdf

 

1990, Apr 7

Glanerbrug meteorite. A fireball seen by hundreds of people in the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark resulted in an impact of an 885 g meteorite, riddling the roof of a home in Glanerbrug (the Netherlands).

See: http://www.sterrenkunde.nl/index/encyclopedie/meteoren.html  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glanerbrug_meteoriet  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteorite_fall  

 

1990, Apr 26

C.R. Chapman, 1990, Nature, 344, 813, "Meteorite parent bodies." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Natur.344..813C

 

1990, Jul 25

Asteroid 2013 PG10 (H = 27.7 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at at a nominal miss distance of 7.05 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.65 LD.

See: 2013 PG10 - JPL , 2013 PG10 - SSA

 

1990, Sep

US Congress House in NASA Multiyear Authorization Act of 1990: "imperative that detection rate of Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids must be increased substantially, and that means to destroy or alter orbits … should be defined and agreed internationally."

 

1990, Sep 19

Asteroid 2003 SW130 (H = 29.1 mag, D ≈ 6 m) passed Earth at at a nominal miss distance of 0.56 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.46 LD.

See: 2003 SW130 - JPL , 2003 SW130 - SSA

See also: 19 Sept 2003.

 

1990, Oct 13

Earth-grazing fireball, a 40 kg asteroid passing 98 km above Czechoslovakia and Poland with 41.5 km/s.

Ref:

- P. Spurný, Z. Ceplecha, J. Borovička, 1991, WGN, the Journal of the IMO, 19, 13, "Earth-grazing fireball: Czechoslovakia, Poland, October 13, 1990, 03h27m16sUT."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JIMO...19...13S

- J. Borovička, Z. Ceplecha, 1992, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 257, 323, "Earth-grazing fireball of October 13, 1990."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992A%26A...257..323B  

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth-grazing_fireball

 

1990, Dec

A. Milani, M. Carpino, F. Marzari, 1990, Icarus, 88, 292, "Statistics of close approaches between asteroids and planets: project SPACEGUARD."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Icar...88..292M

 

1991

US Congresssional Statement 1991: "The House Committee on Science and Technology believes that it is imperative that the detection rate of Earthorbitcrossing asteroids must be increased substantially, and that the means to destroy or alter the orbits of asteroids when they do threaten collisions should be defined and agreed upon internationally. The chances of the Earth being struck by a large asteroid are extremely small, but because the consequences of such a collision are extremely large, the Committee believes it is only prudent to assess the nature of the threat and prepare to deal with it." NASA Authorization Bill, 1991.

The US Congress House Committee on Science and Technology used NASA Authorization Bill to direct NASA to study (1) a programme to increase detection rate of Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids addressing costs, schedule, technology and equipment (Spaceguard Survey Report); (2) systems and technologies to destroy or alter orbits of such asteroids if they should pose a danger to life on Earth (NEO Interception Workshop).

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/gov_cong_hearings_1.cfm

 

1991

The 5000th minor planet was numbered at the IAU Minor Planet Center, main-belt asteroid 5000 IAU (1987 QN7, H = 14.3 mag, D ≈ 5858 m), discovered on 23 August 1987 by Eleanor F. Helin (1932 – 2009) at Palomar Observatory (CA, USA).

See:

1987 QN7 - JPL , 5000 IAU - SSA ,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5000_IAU

 

1991, Jan 18

Asteroid 1991 BA (H = 28.7 mag, D ≈ 8 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.44 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.37 LD.

See:

1991 BA - JPL , 1991 BA - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1991_BA

Ref:

- D. Steel, 1991, Nature, 354, 265, "Our asteroid-pelted planet". See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.354..265S  

- J.V. Scotti, D.L. Rabinowitz, B.G. Marsden, 1991, Nature, 354, 287, "Near miss of the Earth by a small asteroid."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.354..287S

 

1991, Apr

D.L. Rabinowitz, 1991, Astronomical Journal, 101, 1518, "Detection of earth-approaching asteroids in near real time."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AJ....101.1518R

 

1991, Apr 8

Asteroid 2012 UE34 (H = 23.1 mag, D ≈ 99 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.85 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.68 LD.

See: 2012 UE34 - JPL , 2012 UE34 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_UE34

See also: 8 Apr 2041.

 

1991, Apr/May

Workshop on Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids (1), San Juan Capistrano (CA, USA). Proceedings: T. Gehrels, M.S. Matthews & A.M. Schumann (eds.), 1994, Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids (Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press).

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994hdtc.conf.....G  http://www.ips.gov.au/IPSHosted/neo/info/refers/Bk_Hazards_Gehrels.htm

 

1991, May 7

Benešov Bolide detected and observed at the Czech stations of the European Fireball Network on 7 May 1991, one of the brightest and best-documented bolides.

Ref:

- J. Borovicka, O.P. Popova, I.V. Nemtchinov, et al., 1998, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 334, 713, "Bolides produced by impacts of large meteoroids into the Earth's atmosphere: comparison of theory with observations. I. Benešov Bolide dynamics and fragmentation."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998A%26A...337..591B   

- N.G. Barri, V.P. Stulov, 2003, Solar System Research, 37, 302, "Peculiarities of the fragmentation of Benešov's Bolide."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SoSyR..37..302B  

 

1991, Jun 24-28

International conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, IV, Flagstaff, (AZ, USA). Proceedings: A.W. Harris & E.L.G. Bowell (eds.), 1992, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1991 (Houston: Lunar & Planetary Institute).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992acm..proc.....H   

 

1991, June 30 – Jul 3

          Sep 24-25

          Nov 5

NASA International NEO Detection Workshops, (1st ) San Juan Capistrino Research Institute; (2nd ) NASA Ames Research Center; (3rd ) Palo Alto (CA, USA).

 

1991, Aug

IAU XXI General Assembly, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Resolution by IAU Commission 20 on Positions and Motions of Asteroids, Comets and Satellites, under the presidency of Richard West, calling for an IAU Inter-Commission Working Group on Near Earth Objects (WG-NEO).

See:

http://web.mit.edu/rpb/wgneo/  

http://spaceguard.iasf-roma.inaf.it/SGF/history.html

 

1991, Sep

R.A.F. Grieve, 1991, Meteoritics, 26, 175, "Terrestrial impact – the record in the rocks."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Metic..26..175G

 

1991, Sep

G.L. Verschuur, 1991, Astronomy, 19, No. 9, p. 50, "The end of civilization."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Ast....19...50V

 

1991, Oct

S.J. Ostro, R.F. Jurgens, K.D. Rosema, R. Winkler, D.K. Yeomans, D.B. Campbell, J.F. Chandler, I.I. Shapiro, A.A. Hine, R. Velez, 1991, Astronomical Journal, 102, 1490, "Asteroid radar astrometry."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AJ....102.1490O

 

1991, Oct 10-11

All-Union conference The Asteroid Hazard, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Proceedings in Russian.

 

1991, Oct 29

NASA spacecraft Galileo flew by asteroid 951 Gaspra (1916 S45, H = 11.6 mag, D = 18.2 × 10.5 × 8.9 km, main-belt asteroid) at a distance of 1600 km.

See:

1916 S45 - JPL , 951 Gaspra - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/951_Gaspra

Ref:

- J. Veverka, M. Belton, K. Klaasen, C. Chapman, 1994, Icarus, 107, 2, "Galileo's encounter with 951 Gaspra: overview."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Icar..107....2V  

 

1991, Nov

G.L. Verschuur, 1991, Air and Space, vol. 6, Oct.-Nov. 1991, p. 88, "This target earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AirSp...6...88V

 

1991, Nov 28

J.V. Scotti, D.L. Rabinowitz, B.G. Marsden, 1991, Nature, 354, 287, "Near miss of the earth by a small asteroid."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.354..287S

 

1991, Dec

S.J. Ostro, 1991, Meteoritics, 26, 381, "Radar constraints on asteroid metal abundances and meteorite associations."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Metic..26R.381O

 

1991, Dec

A. Cellino, V. Zappalà, P. Farinella, 1991, Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society, 253, 561, "The size distribution of main-belt asteroids from IRAS data."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991MNRAS.253..561C  

The IRAS data base on asteroid albedos and diameters has been used to derive size distributions for a set of ~ 4000 numbered main-belt asteroids.

 

1991, Dec

T. Gehrels, 1991, Space Science Reviews, 58, 347, "Scanning with charge-coupled devices."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SSRv...58..347G

 

1992

E. Tollmann, A. Tollmann, 1992, Mitt. Österr. Geol. Ges., 84, 1, "The Flood Impact." On Tollmann's hypothetical bolide.

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tollmann's_hypothetical_bolide

 

1992

C. Sagan, 1992, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 48, 24, "Between enemies."

See: http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan  

 

1992, Jan

Workshop on Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids (2), Los Alamos (NM, USA). Proceedings: T. Gehrels, M.S. Matthews & A.M. Schumann (eds.), 1994, Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids (Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press).

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994hdtc.conf.....G  http://www.ips.gov.au/IPSHosted/neo/info/refers/Bk_Hazards_Gehrels.htm

 

1992, Jan 10

Asteroid 2016 AH164  (H = 29.7 mag, D ≈ 5 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.77 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.010 LD (= 0.62 REarth from the geocenter).

See: 2016 AH164- JPL , 2016 AH164- SSA

See also: 12 Jan 2016.

 

1992, Jan 14-16

NASA NEO Interception Workshop, Los Alamos (NM, USA). Full investigation of counter-measures concluded that nuclear explosives in stand-off mode most likely to succeed.

Proceedings: G. Canavan, J. Solem, D.G.Rather (eds.), 1993, LANL 12476-C.

See:

http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/downloads/spacesurvey.pdf  

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994hdtc.conf...93C

 

1992, Jan 25

The Spaceguard Survey: Report of the NASA International NEO Detection Workshop, D. Morrison (ed.), 1992 (Washington DC: NASA). Delivered to US Congress. Recommends a search programme and international collaboration to find objects with D > 1 km; and the provision of six ground based telescopes, northern and southern hemisphere sites, southern hemisphere radar; half costs to come from international partners.

See: 

http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/downloads/spacesurvey.pdf  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=59  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=4  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=24  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=99  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=109  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=133  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=143  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=162

The term Spaceguard loosely refers to a number of efforts to discover and study NEOs. The British author Arthur C. Clarke (1917 – 2008) coined the name in his novel Rendezvous with Rama (London: Victor Gollancz, 1973) where Spaceguard was the name of an early warning system. The name was later adopted by a number of real life efforts to discover and study NEOs. The IAU Working Group on Near-Earth Objects (WG-NEO) presented a paper in September 1995 entitled Beginning the Spaceguard Survey, which led on 26 March 1996 to the international organization called the Spaceguard Foundation (SGF).

See:

http://spaceguard.iasf-roma.inaf.it/SGF/history.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spaceguard

Ref:

- A.W. Harris, 2008, Nature, 453, 1178, "What Spaceguard did." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Natur.453.1178H

 

1992, Apr

G.L. Verschuur, 1992, Astronomy, 20(4), 46, "Mysterious sungrazers."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Ast....20...46V

 

1992, Apr 23

Asteroid 2009 TD17 (H = 27.7 mag, D ≈ 12 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.72 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.77 LD.

See: 2009 TD17 - JPL , 2009 TD17 - SSA

See also: 5 Oct 2009, 7 May 2039.

 

1992, May

M. Pilkington, R.A.F. Grieve, 1992, Reviews of Geophysics, 30, 161, "The geophysical signature of terrestrial impact craters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992RvGeo..30..161P

 

1992, Jun

G.H. Canavan, J. Solem, May-June 1992, Mercury, 21(3), 107, "Interception of near-earth objects."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Mercu..21..107C

 

1992, Jun

D. Morrison, 1992, Mercury, 21, 103, "The Spaceguard Survey – protecting the earth from cosmic impacts."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Mercu..21..103M  

 

1992, Jul 6-12

International Conference on Meteoroids and their parent bodies, Smolenice (Slovakia). Proceedings: J. Stohl & I.P. Williams (eds.), 1993 (Bratislava: Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993mtpb.conf.....S  

 

1992, Jul 10

ESA spacecraft Giotto flyby of comet Grigg-Skjellerup.

Ref:

- J.A.M. McDonnell, N. McBride, R. Beard, et al., 1993, Nature, 362, 732, "Dust particle impacts during the Giotto encounter with comet Grigg-Skjellerup."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.362..732M

- S.M.P. McKenna-Lawlor, P.W. Daly, E. Kirsch, et al., 1993, Nature, "Energetic ions at comet Grigg-Skjellerup measured from the Giotto spacecraft."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.363..326M

See also:

http://hubble.esa.int/science-e/www/area/index.cfm?fareaid=15  http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Rosetta/SEMMA0YTVKG_0.html

 

1992, Aug 7

R.P. Binzel, S. Xu, S.J. Bus, E. Bowell, 1992, Science, 257, 779, "Origins for the Near-Earth Asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Sci...257..779B  

 

1992, Sep

Z. Ceplecha, 1992, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 263, 361, "Influx of interplanetary bodies onto earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992A%26A...263..361C

 

1992, Oct 9

Peekskill Fireball and Meteorite. A fireball was seen streaking across the sky from Kentucky to New York. At least 14 people captured part of the fireball on videotape. A 12-kilogram stony meteorite (chondrite) from the fireball fell in Peekskill (NY, USA), smashed the trunk of a parked automobile and came to rest beneath it.

Ref:

- Z. Ceplecha, P. Brown, R.L. Hawkes, 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 455, "Video observations of the Peekskill meteorite fireball: atmospheric trajectory and orbit."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29Q.455C

- P. Brown, Z. Ceplecha, R.L. Hawkes, et al., 1994, Nature, 367, 624, "The orbit and atmospheric trajectory of the Peekskill meteorite from video records."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Natur.367..624B

See also: http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level2/peekskill.html  

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/meteors/impacts.html http://uregina.ca/~astro/mb_5.html  http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1535-when-space-attacks-6-craziest-meteor-impacts-history.html  

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap021118.html  http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap061119.html  http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap110123.html

 

1992, Nov 23

J. Impocco, J.F. Podevin, 1992, Newsweek, 23 November 1992, Vol. 120, No. 21, "Doomsday science - New theories about comets, asteroids and how the world might end."

See: http://www.amazon.com/Newsweek-November-DOOMSDAY-THEORIES-ASTEROIDS/dp/B0054K8T0E  

 

1992, Dec 3

T.J. Ahrens, A.W. Harris, 1992, Nature, 360, 429, "Deflection and fragmentation of near-Earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Natur.360..429A

 

1992, Dec 8

Asteroid 4179 Toutatis (1989 AC, H = 15.3 mag, D = 4.6×2.4×1.9 km, orbital P = 4.03 yr, PHA) passed Earth at 9.40 LD. Minimum miss distance 9.40 LD. It is the largest known PHA.

See:

1989 AC - JPL , 4179 Toutatis - SSA

Ref:

- R.S. Hudson, S.J. Ostro, D.J. Scheeres, 2003, Icarus, 161, 346, "High-resolution model of asteroid 4179 Toutatis."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Icar..161..346H

See also:

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2000/ast31oct_1/  http://newton.dm.unipi.it/neodys/index.php?pc=1.1.8&n=Toutatis  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4179_Toutatis

See also: 30 Nov 1996, 31 Oct 2000, 29 Sep 2004, 9 Nov 2008, 12 Dec 2012, 5 Nov 2069.

 

1993

NASA Planetary Astronomy Program Office begins ramp up of funding for NEO observations.

 

1993

Major L.N. Johnson, 1993, White Paper, presented to SPACECAST 2020, "Preparing for Planetary Defense: detection and interception of asteroids on collision course with Earth." In this paper the term Planetary Defense was coined.

See:

http://csat.au.af.mil/2020/index.htm  http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2020/app-r.htm   

 

1993

Photographic asteroid and comet search project started by Timothy B. Spahr and C. Hergenrother (LPL, Univ. of Arizona). This project eventually evolved into the Catalina Sky Survey in 1998.

Ref:

- T.B. Spahr, C. Hergenrother, S.M. Larson, 1993, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 25, 1059, "High ecliptic latitude asteroid and comet search."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993DPS....25.1013S

 

1993

Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008, UK/Sri Lanka), 1993, The Hammer of God (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hammer_of_God

 

1993

R.A.F. Grieve, 1993, Vistas in Astronomy, 36, 203, "Impact craters: lessons from and for the Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993VA.....36..203G

 

1993

F.E. Wickman, 1993, Swedish Geol. Journal, 115, 29, "Eight pound ball fell on the ship and killed two boatsmen." An eight-pound meteorite hit the Dutch VOC ship Malacca, sailing from Holland to Batavia (Java, Netherlands-Indies) in 1648, allegedly killing two sailors. Story based on book Reesa till Ostindien jempte een kort berättelse om konungerijket Japan (1674) by 17th century Swedish historian-turned sailor Olof Eriksson Willman, who travelled the Netherlands-Indies in 1647 – 1653.

See also:

http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olof_Eriksson_Willman  

 

1993, Jan 7

C.F. Chyba, P.J. Thomas, K.J. Zahnle, 1993, Nature, 361, 40, "The 1908 Tunguska explosion: atmospheric disruption of a stony asteroid."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.361...40C

 

1993, Jan 7-12

Workshop on Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids (3), Tucson (AZ, USA). Proceedings: T. Gehrels, M.S. Matthews & A.M. Schumann (eds.), 1994, Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids (Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press).

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994hdtc.conf.....G  http://www.ips.gov.au/IPSHosted/neo/info/refers/Bk_Hazards_Gehrels.htm

 

1993, Jan 19

Lugo Fireball and Airburst (Northern, Italy).

See:

http://www.ta3.sk/caosp/Eedition/FullTexts/vol24/pp117-124.pdf  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1993, Feb

P. Farinella, R. Gonczi, Ch. Froeschlé, C. Froeschlé, 1993, Icarus, 101, 174, "The injection of asteroid fragments into resonances." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Icar..101..174F

 

1993, Mar

J.G. Hills, M.P. Goda, 1993, Astronomical Journal, 105, 1114, "The fragmentation of small asteroids in the atmosphere."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AJ....105.1114H

 

1993, Mar

European Science Foundation (ESF) initiates new scientific network "Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth." This led to the submission of a Research Networking Programme proposal in 1998, "Response of the Earth System to Impact Processes (IMPACT)", approved for five years, 1998 to 2002. Four workshops were held in 2002 – 2003."

See: http://www.esf.org/impact

 

1993, Mar 24

U.S. Congressional Hearing on NEOs and Planetary Defense: "The Threat of Large Earth-Orbit Crossing Asteroids."

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/gov_earthasteroids_1.cfm

 

1993, Apr

D.L. Rabinowitz, 1993, Astrophysical Journal, 407, 412, "The size distribution of the Earth-approaching asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993ApJ...407..412R

 

1993, Apr

J.C. Solem, 1993, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 30 (2), 222, "Interception of comets and asteroids on collision course with Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JSpRo..30..222S

 

1993, May

Workshop on Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids (4), Erice (Italy). Proceedings: T. Gehrels, M.S. Matthews & A.M. Schumann (eds.), 1994, Hazards due to Comets and Asteroids (Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press).

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994hdtc.conf.....G  http://www.ips.gov.au/IPSHosted/neo/info/refers/Bk_Hazards_Gehrels.htm

 

1993, May 20

Asteroid 1993 KA2 (H = 29.0 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.39 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.39 LD.

See: 1993 KA2 - JPL , 1993 KA2 - SSA

 

1993, Jun 14-18

IAU Symposium No. 160 on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, V, Belgirate (Italy). Proceedings: A. Milani, M. Di Martino & A. Cellino (eds.), 1994, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1993 (Dordrecht: Kluwer).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994IAUS..160.....M

 

1993, Jun 24

C.F. Chyba, 1993, Nature, 363, 701, "Explosions of small Spacewatch objects in the Earth's atmosphere."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.363..701C

 

1993, Jun 24

D.L. Rabinowitz, T. Gehrels, J.V. Scotti, et al., 1993, Nature, 363, 704, "Evidence for a near-Earth asteroid belt."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.363..704R

 

1993, Jul

D. Morrison, 1993, in: Proc. IAF 43rd International Astronautical Congress, Washington DC (USA), 28 August – 5 September 1992, Acta Astronautica, 30, 11, "An international program to protect the earth from impact catastrophe: Initial steps."

See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/009457659390095E  

 

1993, Aug 17

Tom Gehrels' Vainu Bappu Lecture, presented to the 6th Asian-Pacific Regional IAU Meeting, 16-20 August, Pune (India). Ref.: T. Gehrels, 1995, J. Astrophys. Astr. Suppl., 16, 1, "The beauty and danger of comets and asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JApAS..16....1G

 

1993, Aug 28

NASA spacecraft Galileo flew by asteroid 243 Ida (H = 9.94 mag, D = 59.8 × 25.4 × 18.6 km, main-belt asteroid) at a distance of 10,300 km, and discovered binary component Dactyl (D = 1.4 km), orbiting Ida at a distance of 56 km.

See: 243 Ida - JPL , 243 Ida - SSA ,

Ref:

- E. Asphaug, 2004, in:  M.J.S. Belton, et al. (eds.), Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids (Cambridge: CUP), p. 66, "Interior structures for asteroids and cometary nuclei".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004mhca.conf...66A  

See also:

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo/cruise/ida/ida.html  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/243_Ida

 

1993, Nov

P. Farinella, B. Chauvineau, 1993, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 279, 251, "On the evolution of binary Earth-approaching asteriods."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993A%26A...279..251F

 

1993, Nov

Z. Ceplecha, P. Spurný, J. Borovićka, J. Keclíková, 1993, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 279, 615, "Atmospheric fragmentation of meteoroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993A%26A...279..615C

 

1993, Nov 4

H.J. Melosh, I.V. Nemchinov, 1993, Nature, 366, 21, "Solar asteroid diversion."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.366...21M

 

1993, Dec

D.J. Asher, S.V.M. Clube, 1993, Quarterly Journal Royal Astronomical Society, 34, 481, "An extraterrestrial influence during the current Glacial-Interglacial."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993QJRAS..34..481A

 

1994

T. Gehrels, M.S. Matthews & A.M. Schumann (eds.), 1994, Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids (Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press). Proceedings of four Workshops in April/May 1991, January 1992, January 1993, and May 1993.

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994hdtc.conf.....G  http://ips.gov.au/IPSHosted/neo/info/refers/Bk_Hazards_Gehrels.htm  

 

1994

R.Z. Akhmetshin, V.V. Ivashkin, V.V. Smirnov, 1994, Astronomicheskij Vestnik, 28, 13, "An analysis of the possibility of asteroid hazard mitigation for the Earth by the impact of a spacecraft."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AVest..28...13A

 

1994

D.J. Asher, S.V.M. Clube, W.M. Napier, D.I. Steel, 1994, Vistas in Astronomy, 38, 1, "Coherent catastrophism."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994VA.....38....1A

 

1994

E. Kristan-Tollmann, A. Tolmann, 1994, Terra Nova, 6, 209, "The youngest big impact on Earth deduced from geological and historical evidence."

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tollmann's_hypothetical_bolide

 

1994

A. Deutsch, C. Koeberl, J.D. Blum, et al., 1994, Terra Nova, 6,  644, "The impact-flood connection: does it exist?"

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tollmann's_hypothetical_bolide  

 

1994, Jan

A.W. Harris, 1994, Icarus, 107, 209, "Tumbling asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Icar..107..209H

 

1994, Jan 6

C.R. Chapman, D.D. Morrison, 1994, Nature, 367, 33, "Impacts on the Earth by asteroids and comets: assessing the hazard."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Natur.367...33C

 

1994, Jan 18

Cando Fireball and Airburst (Spain).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

 

1994, Feb

P. Spurný, 1994, Planetary and Space Science, 42, 157, "Recent fireballs photographed in central Europe."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994P%26SS...42..157S

 

1994, Feb

US Congress House Committee on Science and Technology passed an amendment to NASA Authorization Bill directing NASA to report within a year with a programme to identify and catalogue, with help from the Department of Defense and space agencies of other countries, within 10 year, orbital characteristics of all comets and asteroids with D > 1 km and in an orbit that crosses Earth’s.

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/gov_cong_hearings_1.cfm

 

1994, Feb 1

Marshall Islands Fireball and Airbursts. A large meteoroid impacted over the Pacific Ocean at 2.6° N, 164.1° E, 300 km south of Kosrae (Micronesia). The impact was observed by space-based infrared sensors operated by the U.S. Department of Defense and by visible wavelength sensors operated by the U.S. Department of Energy. During entry the object broke into several pieces, one of which detonated at 34 km and another at 21 km altitude. M1.6×105 kg - 4.4×106 kg; D ≈ 4.4 - 13.5 m.

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

Ref:

- E. Tagliaferri, R. Spalding, C. Jacobs, Z. Ceplecha, 1995, Earth, Moon, and Planets, 68, 563, "Analysis of the Marshall Island Fireball of February 1, 1994."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995EM%26P...68..563T  

- T.B. McCord, J. Morris, D. Persong, et al., 1995, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, E2, 3245, "Detection of a meteoroid entry into the Earth's atmosphere on February 1, 1994."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...100.3245M  

- E. Tagliaferri, 1998, Mercury, 27, no.6, p.18, "Observation of meteoroid impacts by space-based sensors."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Mercu..27f..18T

 

1994, Mar 15

Asteroid 1994 ES1 (H = 28.6 mag, D ≈ 8 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.44 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.44 LD.

See: 1994 ES1 - JPL , 1994 ES1 - SSA

 

1994, Apr 7

C. Sagan, S.J. Ostro, 1994, Nature, 368, 501, "Dangers of asteroid deflection."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Natur.368..501S

 

1994, May 18

Asteroid 2017 KJ32 (H = 28.9 mag, D ≈ 7 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 7.10 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.14 LD.

See: 2017 KJ32 - JPL , 2017 KJ32 - SSA

See also: 21 May 2042.

 

1994, Jun

Z. Ceplecha, 1994, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 286, 967, "Impacts of meteoroids larger than 1 M into the Earth's atmosphere."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994A%26A...286..967C

 

1994, Jun 14

St-Robert Daylight Fireball and Meteorite Fall over the Canada-US border, travelling at a velocity of ~13 km/s, widely seen from the provinces of Quebec and Ontario and the states of New Hampshire, Vermont and New York at distances up to ~500 km. The rock fragmented spectacularly ~50 km NE of Montreal at an altitude of ~36 km; hundreds of fragments have been found  with pieces of up to 6.5 kg.

See:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St-Robert_meteorite

Ref:

- P. Brown, A.R. Hildebrand, D.W. Green, et al., 1996, Meteoritics, 31, 502, "The fall of the St-Robert meteorite."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996M%26PS...31..502B

- A.R. Hildebrand, P.G. Brown, J.F. Wacker, et al., 1997, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 91, 261, "The St-Robert Bolide of June 14, 1994."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JRASC..91..261H

 

1994, Jun 30

H.J. Melosh, E.A. Whitaker, 1994, Nature, 369, 713, "Lunar crater chains."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Natur.369..713M

 

1994, Summer

C. Sagan, S.J. Ostro, 1994, Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 1994, 67, "Long-range consequences of interplanetary collisions."

See: http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/handle/2014/33108

 

1994, Jul

W.F. Bottke, M.C. Nolan, R. Greenberg, 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 446, "Provenance of the spacewatch small Earth-approaching asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29S.446B

 

1994, Jul 16-22

Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collides with Jupiter. Some 21 cometary fragments with diameters up to ~ 2 km caused massive explosions, temporarily visible on the surface of Jupiter.

Ref:

- H.A. Weaver, P.D. Feldman, M.F. A'Hearn, et al., 1994, Science, 263, 787, "Hubble Space Telescope observations of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (1993e)."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Sci...263..787W  

- K. Zahnle, M.-M. Mac Low, 1994, Icarus, 108,1, "The collision of Jupiter and comet Shoemaker-Levy 9."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Icar..108....1Z  

- M.-M. Mac Low, K. Zahnle, 1994, Astrophysical Journal, 434, 33, "Explosion of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on entry into the Jovian atmosphere."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...434L..33M  

- G. Orton, M. A'Hearn, K. Baines, et al., 1995, Science, 267, 1277, "Collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter observed by the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Sci...267.1277O  

- H.A. Weaver, M.F. A'Hearn, C. Arpigny, et al., 1995, Science, 267, 1282, "The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing campaign on comet Shoemaker- Levy 9."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Sci...267.1282W  

- D.H. Levy, E.M. Shoemaker, C.S. Shoemaker, 1995, Scientific American, 273, 68, "Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 meets Jupiter." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SciAm.273...68L

- D.H. Levy, 1995, Impact Jupiter: the crash of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (New York: Plenum Press).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ijcc.book.....L

- J.K. Beatty, D.H. Levy, 1995, Sky & Telescope, 90, 18, "Crashes to ashes: a comet's demise."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995S%26T....90...18B  

- K.S. Noll, H.A. Weaver & P.D. Feldman (eds.), 2006, The impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter,  Proc. IAU Coll. No. 156, Baltimore (MD, USA) 9-12 May 1995, STScI Symposium Series No. 9 (Cambridge: CUP, ISBN-0521-03162-1).

See: http://www.iau.org/science/publications/iau/  

See also:

http://www.stsci.edu/institute/conference/jupiter-impact  http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/  

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mark-boslough/unforgettable-shoemakerle_b_2946407.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Shoemaker-Levy_9

 

1994, Aug           

W. Tedeschi, E. Teller, 1994, Space Policy, 10, 183, "A plan for worldwide protection against asteroid impacts."

See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0265964694900671

 

1994, Aug 2

Asteroid 2017 BL30 (H = 23.4 mag, D ≈ 90 m) will pass Earth at a nominal miss distance of 5.88 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.04 LD.

See: 2017 BL30 - SSA , 2017 BL30 - JPL

 

1994, Aug 8-12

Meeting on Small Bodies in the Solar System and their interactions with the planets, Mariehamn (Finland), 8 - 12 August 1994. Proc: H. Rickman, M.J. Valtonen (eds.), 1996, Earth, Moon, Planets, 72, No. 1 - 3, "Worlds in interaction: small bodies and planets of the solar system."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996EM%26P...72.....R

 

1994, Aug 20

IAU XXII General Assembly, Den Haag (the Netherlands). The IAU Working Group on Near Earth Objects, chaired by Andrea Carusi, had a science meeting, and presented a report recommending that an international authority should take responsibility for NEO investigations and initiatives.

Ref:

- I. Appenzeller (ed.), 1996, Transactions IAU XXIIB, (Dordrecht: Kluwer Acad. Publ.), IAU Commission 20 Report, p. 164, "Working Group Meeting 2 on Near-Earth Object Detection."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996IAUTB..22.....A

- J. Tate, 2000, Space Policy, 16, 261, "Avoiding collisions: the Spaceguard Foundation."

See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265964600000369

See also:

http://spaceguard.iasf-roma.inaf.it/SGF/history.html

 

1994, Sep 22

P. Farinella, Ch. Froeschlé, C. Froeschlé, R. Gonczi, G. Hahn, A. Morbidelli, G.B. Valsecchi, 1994, Nature, 371, 314, "Asteroids falling into the Sun."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Natur.371..315F

 

1994, Sep 26-30

1st International Conference on Space Protection of the Earth (SPE-94), Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation.

See: http://www.boulder.swri.edu/clark/ncarhist.html

 

1994, Oct

D.L. Rabinowitz, 1994, Icarus, 111, 364, "The size and shape of the near-Earth asteroid belt."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Icar..111..364R

 

1994, Nov

K. Yau, P. Weissman, D. Yeomans, 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 864, "Meteorite falls in China and some related human casualty events."

In February-March of the year 1490 a barrage of stones of 1 – 1.5 kg fell like rain in the Chíng-yang district of Shansi Province (China), killing more than 10,000 people.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..864Y  

See also:

http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg80757.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_event

 

1994, Nov 24

Asteroid 1994 WR12 (H = 22.3 mag, D ≈ 149 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.85 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.85 LD.

See: 1994 WR12 - JPL , 1994 WR12  - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1994_WR12

See also: 25 Nov 2046.

 

1994, Dec

C. Covey, S.L. Thompson, P.R. Weissman, et al., 1994, Global and Planetary Change, 9, 263, "Global climatic effects of atmospheric dust from an asteroid or comet impact on Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GPC.....9..263C

 

1994, Dec

K. Keil, H. Haack, E.R.D. Scott, 1994, Planetary and Space Science, 42, 1109, "Catastrophic fragmentation of asteroids: evidence from meteorites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994P%26SS...42.1109K

 

1994, Dec

K.O. Pope, K.H. Baines, A.C. Ocampo, B.A. Ivanov, 1994, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 128, 719, "Impact winter and the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinctions: results of a Chicxulub asteroid impact model."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994E%26PSL.128..719P

 

1994, Dec 9

Asteroid 1994 XM1 (H = 28.2 mag, D ≈ 10 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 0.27 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.27 LD.

See: 1994 XM1 - JPL , 1994 XM1 SSA

See also:

http://spacewatch.lpl.arizona.edu/pics.html  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=96  http://www.rssd.esa.int/index.php?project=GAIA&page=picture_of_the_week&pow=5

 

1994, Dec 17

S. Rozendaal, 1994, Elsevier, 17 december 1994, "De catastrophe. Waarom de dino's uitstierven en de mens ontstond."

 

1995

D. Steel, 1995, Rogue Asteroids and Doomsday Comets: the Search for the Million Megaton Menace that Threatens Life on Earth (New York: Wiley). With a foreword by Arthur C. Clarke.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995radc.book.....S  

Review: D. Morrison, 1997, Physics Today, 50, 65.

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhT....50Q..65M

 

1995

The (1.0/1.2m) Schmidt CCD Asteroid Program (SCAP) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory put in practice, a NEO search telescope in operation at the Xuyu Station of the Purple Mountain Observatory, 120 km north of Nanjing (China).

Ref:

- Y. Ma, H. Zhao, D. Yao, 2007, in: A. Milani, G.B. Valsecchi & D. Vokrouhlický (eds.), Proc. IAU Symposium No. 236 on Near Earth Objects, our Celestial Neighbors: Opportunity and Risk, Prague (Czech Republic), 14-18 August 2006 (Cambridge: CUP), p. 381, "NEO search telescope in China."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IAUJD...6E..24Z

 

1995

SPACECAST 2020, "Preparing for planetary defense: detection and interception of asteroids on collision course with Earth."

See: http://csat.au.af.mil/2020/papers/app-r.pdf  

 

1995

D.I. Steel, R.H. McNaught, C.J. Garradd, et al., 1995, in: J. Chapman, R. Cannon & B. Hidayat (eds.), Proc. IAU Colloquium No. 148 on The Future Utilisation of Schmidt Telescopes, Bandung (Indonesia), 7-11 March 1994, ASP Conf. Series, 84, 159, "Searching for Near-Earth Asteroids with the UK Schmidt telescope at the AAO."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ASPC...84..159S

 

1995, Jan

J.G. Hills, P.J.T. Leonard, 1995, Astronomical Journal, 109, 401, "Earth-crossing asteroids: the last days before earth impact."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AJ....109..401H

 

1995, Jan

K. Muionen, E. Bowell, K. Lumme, 1995, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 293, 948, "Interrelating asteroid size, albedo, and magnitude distributions." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995A%26A...293..948M

 

1995, Jan

Hanover Fireball (Germany).

See: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap960226.html

 

1995, Mar

S. Mottola, G. de Angelis, M. di Martino, et al., 1995, in: Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 26, 1003, "The EUNEASO photometric follow-up program."

See http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995LPI....26.1003M

 

1995, Apr

R.P. Binzel, 1995, Planetary Report, 15, no. 2, p. 8, "Near-Earth objects: friends or foes?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PlR....15b...8B  

 

1995, Apr

D.I. Steel, 1995, Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society, 273, 1091, "Collisions in the Solar System. VI. Terrestrial impact probabilities for the known asteroid population."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995MNRAS.273.1091S

 

1995, Apr 24-26

United Nations international conference on Near Earth Objects. Proceedings: J.L. Remo (ed.), 1997, Near-Earth Objects: the United Nations International Conference, Annals New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 822 (New York: NY Academy of Sciences). See:

http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/neo.html  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119150668/issue  

 

1995, May 22-26

Planetary Defense Workshop: An International Technical Meeting on Active Defense of the Terrestrial Biosphere from Impacts by Large Asteroids and Comets, Livermore (CA, USA). Proceedings: LLNL CONF-9505266. Report by Peter Tyson.

See: https://str.llnl.gov/str/News895.html     

 

1995, Jun

D. Steel, 1995, The Observatory, 115, 136, "Tunguska and the Kagarlyk meteorite."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Obs...115..136S

 

1995, Jun

Report of the NASA Near Earth Objects Survey Working Group, E.M Shoemaker (ed.), 1995 (Washington DC: NASA Office of Space Science, Solar System Exploration Office). Released with a programme to meet Congress’ requirements, delivered to Congress 9 Aug 1995. Recommends NASA, USAF and international collaboration to provide two dedicated 2-m discovery telescopes, use of two existing 1 m telescopes for survey and follow-up, enhanced funding to obtain roughly half time on a 3 – 4 m telescopes for physical observation, and Minor Planet Center enhancements.

See:

http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/downloads/neosurvey.pdf  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=94

 

1995, Jul

V.V. Svetsov, E.V. Nemtchinov, A.V. Teterev, 1995, Icarus, 116, 131, " Disintegration of large meteoroids in Earth's atmosphere: theoretical models."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Icar..116..131S

 

1995, Aug

S.I. Ipatov, 1995, Solar System Research, 29, 261, "Migration of small bodies to Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SoSyR..29..261I

 

1995, Aug

D. Steel, 1995, Proceedings Astronomical Society of Australia, 12 (2), 202, "Asteroid discovery efficiencies for telescope systems at Siding Spring."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PASA...12..202S

 

1995, Sep

Ch. Froeschlé, G. Hahn, R. Gonczi, et al., 1995, Icarus, 117, 45, "Secular resonances and the dynamics of Mars-crossing and Near-Earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Icar..117...45F

 

1995, Sep

M. Beech, D. Steel, 1995, Quarterly Journal Royal Astronomical Society, 3, 281, "On the definition of the term Meteoroid."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995QJRAS..36..281B

 

1995, Sep

R.P. Binzel, 1995, Meteoritics, 30, 486, "Forging new links in the asteroid-meteorite connection."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.486B

 

1995, Sep

P. Hammerling, J.L. Remo, 1995, Acta Astronautica, 36, 337, "NEO interaction with nuclear radiation."

See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0094576595001115

 

1995, Sep

D.A. Kring, H.J. Melosh, D.M. Hunten, 1995, Meteoritics, 30(5), 530, "Possible climatic perturbations produced by impacting asteroids and comets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30T.530K  

 

1995, Sep

S. Mottola, G. de Angelis, M. di Martino, 1995, Icarus, 117, 62, "The Near-Earth Objects follow-up program: first results."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Icar..117...62M

 

1995, Sep

C. Koeberl, W.U. Reimold, D. Brandt, C.W. Poag, 1995, Meteoritics, 30(5), 528, "Chesapeake Bay crater, Virginia: confirmation of impact origin."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30R.528K

 

1995, Sep

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) position paper Responding to the Potential Threat of a Near-Earth-Object Impact, prepared by its Space Systems Technical Committee and its Systems Engineering Technical Committee. See: http://pdf.aiaa.org/downloads/publicpolicypositionpapers/NearEarth-1995.pdf  

 

1995, Sep 18-22

IAU Working Group on Near Earth Objects Workshop, Vulcano (Italy), Beginning the Spaceguard Survey. The Workshop participants agreed to set up a Spaceguard Foundation, which materialized on 26 September 1996, in Rome. The Spaceguard Central Node (SCN), hosted by ESA at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy) is a web site of The Spaceguard Foundation. Since 2002, the SCN is supporting ESA’s Science Programme in all issues related to NEOs.

Ref:

- J. Tate, 2000, Space Policy, 16, 261, "Avoiding collisions: the Spaceguard Foundation."

See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265964600000369 See also:

http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~marsden/SGF/Vulcano/programme.ps  http://spaceguard.iasf-roma.inaf.it/SGF/history.html  http://www.esa.int/esaMI/NEO/SEMS58OVGJE_0.html

 

1995, Oct

D. Morrison, 1995, Astronomy, 23, No. 10, p. 34, "Target: Earth!" See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Ast....23...34M

 

1995, Nov

D. Steel, 1995, Australian Journal of Astronomy,  6 (3), 87, "The death of the dinosaurs and protection of humankind from asteroid impacts: the first suggestion?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AuJA....6...87S

 

1995, Dec

B.J. Gladman, J.A. Burns, M.J. Duncan, H.F. Levison, 1995, Icarus, 118, 302, "The dynamical evolution of lunar impact ejecta.."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Icar..118..302G

 

1995, Dec

D. Steel, 1995, WGN, Journal of the International Meteor Organization, 23, 207, "Two "Tunguskas" in South America in the 1930's?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JIMO...23..207S

 

1995, Dec

Near Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program run by NASA and JPL to discover NEOs, from December 1995 to April 2007. The project employed two telescopes, on Maui (1m GEODSS telescope, HI, USA) and Mt. Palomar (1.2m Schmidt, CA, USA). Ref:

- S.H. Pravdo, D.L. Rabinowitz, E.F. Helin, et al., 1999, Astronomical Journal, 117, 1616, "The Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program: an automated system for telescope control, wide-field imaging, and object detection."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AJ....117.1616P  

- E.F Helin, S.H. Pravdo, D.L. Rabinowitz, K.J. Lawrence, 1997, in: J.L. Remo (ed.), Proc. Near-Earth Objects: the United Nations International Conference, New York (NY, USA), 24-26 April 1995, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 822, 6, "Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) Program."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822....6H

See also:

http://neat.jpl.nasa.gov  http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/geodss.htm

 

1996

W.F. Bottke, M.C. Nolan, H.J. Melosh, 1996, in: T.W. Rettig & J.M. Hahn (eds.), Completing the inventory of the Solar System, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Proceedings, 107, 3, "Provenance of the Spacewatch Small Earth--Approaching Asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ASPC..107....3B

 

1996

V. Clube, B. Napier, 1996, Catastrophes and comets. The destroyers of cosmic faith, (Singapore: World Scientific).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ccdc.book.....C

 

1996

D.W. Cox, J.H. Chestek, 1996, Doomsday asteroid: can we survive? (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996QB377.C69......  

 

1996

P. Farinella, 1996, Meteorite, 2, 8, "Chaotic routes between the asteroid belt and Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Met.....2....8F

 

1996

S. Hawking, 1996, Life in the Universe.

See: http://hawking.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=65  

 

1996

G.L. Verschuur, 1996, Impact! The Threat of Comets and Asteroids (Oxford: OUP).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996itca.book.....V

 

1996, Jan

T.H. Burbine, R.P. Binzel, S.J. Bus, J.M. Sunshine, 1996, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 31, A24, "Spectroscopy of Near-Earth Asteroids: new results."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996M%26PSA..31R..24B  

 

1996, Jan 11-14

Fifth United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop on Basic Space Science: From Small Telescopes to Space Missions, hosted by the Arthur C. Clarke Center for Modern Technology on behalf of the Government of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Report (A/AC.105/640, 14 May 1996) resolves that an international network of telescopes under UN aegis is needed for NEO searching and tracking.

See: http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/reports/ac105/AC105_640E.pdf

 

1996, Feb

S.V.M. Clube, 1996, Earth, Moon and Planets, 72, 433, "Evolution, punctuational crises and the threat to civilization." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996EM%26P...72..433C

 

1996, Feb

T. Gehrels, R. Jedicke, 1996, Earth, Moon, and Planets, 72, 233, "The population of near-Earth objects discovered by Spacewatch."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996EM%26P...72..233G  

See also:

http://spacewatch.lpl.arizona.edu/

 

1996, Feb

R.A.F. Grieve, L.J. Pesonen, 1996, Earth, Moon and Planets, 72, 357, "Terrestrial impact craters: their spatial and temporal distribution and impacting bodies."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996EM%26P...72..357G

 

1996, Feb

R. Jedicke, 1996, Astronomical Journal, 111, 970, "Detection of Near Earth Asteroids based upon their rates of motion."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AJ....111..970J

 

1996, Feb

M. Menichella, P. Paolicchi, P. Farinella, 1996, Earth, Moon and Planets, 72, 133, "The Main Belt as a source of Near-Earth Asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996EM%26P...72..133M

 

1996, Feb

P. Michel, Ch. Froeschlé, P. Farinella, 1996, Earth, Moon, and Planets, 72, 151, "Dynamical evolution of NEAs: close encounters, secular perturbations and resonances."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996EM%26P...72..151M

 

1996, Feb

J. Remo, 1996, Space Policy, 12, 13, "Policy perspectives from the UN international conference on near-Earth objects."

See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0265964695000348  

 

1996, Feb 17

Launch of NASA spacecraft Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR – Shoemaker), a mission to rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros (1898 DQ, H = 11.16 mag, D = 34.4 × 11.2× 11.2 km, orbital P = 1.76 yr) on 12 February 2001.

See: http://near.jhuapl.edu/media/NEAR_fact_sheet.pdf  

 

1996, Mar

M. Boslough, 1996, Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 20.2, March/April 1996, "Scientific knowledge is money in the bank."

See: http://www.csicop.org/si/show/scientific_knowledge_is_money_in_the_bank

 

1996, Mar

T. Gehrels, 1996, Scientific American, 274, 34, "Collisions with comets and asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SciAm.274c..34G

 

1996, Mar

I. Halliday, A.A. Griffin, A.T. Blackwell, 1996, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 31, 185, "Detailed data for 259 fireballs from the Canadian camera network and inferences concerning the influx of large meteoroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996M%26PS...31..185H

 

1996, Mar

A.W. Harris, 1996, Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts, 27, 493, "The rotation rates of very small asteroids: evidence for 'Rubble Pile' structure."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27..493H

 

1996, Mar

J.C. Solem, J.G. Hills, 1996, Astronomical Journal, 111, 1382, "Shaping of Earth-crossing asteroids by tidal forces."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AJ....111.1382S

 

1996, Mar 1

C. Koeberl, C.W. Poag, W.U. Reimold, D. Brandt, 1996, Science, 271, 1263, "Impact origin of the Chesapeake Bay structure and the source of the North American tektites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Sci...271.1263K  

 

1996, Mar 20

Presentation by Adriane C. Ocampo at the 27th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18 – 22 March 1996 in Houston (TX, USA) on a chain of impact craters in Chad suggested by space-borne radar images, possibly caused by a large, fragmented comet or asteroid similar to the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet that slammed into Jupiter in 1994. The craters were discovered in radar images of the Earth taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in April and October of 1994.

Ref:

- A.C. Campo, K.O., Pope, 1996, Lunar and Planetary Science, 27, 977, "Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C) images reveal multiple impact craters at Aorounga, Northern Chad."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27..977O  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=81

 

1996, Mar 20

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, France), Resolution 1080: "On the detection of asteroids and comets potentially dangerous to mankind", invited governments of member states and the European Space Agency (ESA) to give the necessary support to an international program to detect NEOs that are potentially dangerous to mankind and to develop a strategy for remedies against possible impacts.

See:

http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~marsden/SGF/resol.html  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=82

 

1996, Mar 26

Inauguration of the Spaceguard Foundation (SGF), Rome (Italy), founded by E. Shoemaker, D. Steel, A. Carusi and the IAU WG-NEO. The SGF is located at the ESA Centre for Earth Observations (ESRIN) in Frascati (Italy).

See:

http://spaceguard.iasf-roma.inaf.it/SGF/history.html  http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~marsden/SGF/  

http://spaceguard.esa.int

 

1996, Apr

T. Gehrels, 1996, The Observatory, 116, 104, " Dinosauritis."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Obs...116..104G

 

1996, Apr

P. Michel, P. Farinella, Ch. Froeschlé, 1996, Nature, 380, 689, "The orbital evolution of the asteroid Eros and implications for collision with the Earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Natur.380..689M

 

1996, May 14

Massive asteroid 1996 JA1 (H = 21.0 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) discovered by Timothy B. Spahr on photographic plates at the University of Arizona.

Ref:

- T. Spahr, D.J. Tholen, M. Hicks, J. Collins, 1996, IAU Circ. 6402, "1996 JA1."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996IAUC.6402....1S

- T.B. Spahr, C.W. Hergenrother, S.M. Larson, et al., 1997, Icarus, 129, 415, "The discovery and physical characteristics of 1996 JA1."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..129..415S  

See also: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n23_v149/ai_18385352/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timothy_B._Spahr

 

1996, May 19

Asteroid 1996 JA1 (H = 21.0 mag, D ≈ 200 m, PHA) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.18 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.18 LD.

See: 1996 JA1- JPL , 1996 JA1 - SSA

 

1996, Jul

N.W. Harris, M.E. Bailey, 1996, Irish Astronomical Journal, 1996, 23(2), 151, "The cometary component of the Near-Earth Object population."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996IrAJ...23..151H

 

1996, Jul 8-12

International conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, VI, Versailles (France). Proc.: A.V. Levasseur-Regourd & M. Fulchignoni (eds.), Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1996, I: 1996, Planetary and Space Science, 45, No. 5; II: 1997, Planetary and Space Science, 45 No.7; III: 1997, Planetary and Space Science, 45, No.12; Planetary and Space Science, 46, No.8.

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997P%26SS...45.....L  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46..835L

 

1996, Jul 15-17

International conference Tunguska '96, Bologna (Italy).

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=88

 

1996, Jul 28

T. Mallon, 8 July 1996, New York Times Magazine, "The asteroids are coming! The asteroids are coming!

See: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/28/magazine/the-asteroids-are-coming-the-asteroids-are-coming.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm  

 

1996, Aug

W.F. Bottke, M.C. Nolan, H.J. Melosh, 1996, Icarus, 122, 406, "Origin of the Spacewatch small Earth-approaching asteroids." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Icar..122..406B

 

1996, Aug 16

R.P. Binzel, S.J. Bus, Th.H. Burbine, J.M. Sunshine, 1996, Science, 273, 946, "Spectral properties of Near-Earth Asteroids: evidence for sources of ordinary chondrite meteorites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Sci...273..946B

 

1996, Aug 16

D.S. McKay, E.K. Gibson, K.L. Thomas-Keprta, et al., 1996, Science, 273, 924, "Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in Martian meteorite ALH84001."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Sci...273..924M

See also:

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-065&1&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=releases20140227

 

1996, Sep

P. Michel, C. Froeschle, P. Farinella, 1996, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 313, 993, "Dynamical evolution of two near-Earth asteroids to be explored by spacecraft: (433) Eros and (4660) Nereus."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996A%26A...313..993M

 

1996, Sep 23-27

2nd International Conference on Space Protection of the Earth (SPE-96), Snezhinsk/Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation).

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=87

 

1996, Oct

P.M. Sforza, J.L. Remo, 1996, Acta Astronautica, "Propulsion options for missions to near-Earth objects."

See: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009457659785432X  

 

1996, Oct

J.M. Urias, I.M. DeAngelis, D.A. Ahern, et al., 1996, paper presented to Air Force 2025, "Planetary Defense:

catastrophic health insurance for planet Earth."

See: http://csat.au.af.mil/2025/volume3/vol3ch16.pdf  

 

1996, Oct

Start of the OCA-DLR Asteroid Survey (O.D.A.S.), to search for asteroids and comets with emphasis on NEO's, operated from October 1996 to April 1999 by the Observatoire de Côte d'Azur (OCA, Nice, France) and the DLR – Institute of Planetary Research (Berlin-Adlershof, Germany), in the framework of the EUNEASO project. Five NEAs were discovered.

See:

http://earn.dlr.de/odas/  

http://earn.dlr.de/euneaso.htm  

 

1996, Oct 13

 

Asteroid 2012 TC4 (H = 26.7 mag, D ≈ 19 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 1.97 LD. Minimum miss distance 1.77 LD.

See: 2012 TC4 - JPL , 2012 TC4 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_TC4 

12 Oct 2012, 12 Oct 2017.

 

1996, Oct 20

The Japanese Spaceguard Association (JSGA) officially founded. Plans for the future involved two 1-m class ground-based NEO telescopes in Japan and a 30-cm NEO telescope on the Moon. A 1-m wide-field telescope for NEO detection became operational in 2002, and observes NEOs down to v = 20.5 since 2006.

Ref: SGF Information Bulletin No. 1997/01, May 22, 1997, Item 7.

See also: http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/reports/ac105/AC105_976E.pdf  http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/reports/ac105/C1/AC105_C1_100E.pdf  

 

1996, Oct 21

Space Shield Foundation established in Russia.

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=91

 

1996, Nov

A.W. Harris, 1996, Mercury, 25, no.6, p.12, "Can we defend Earth against impacts by comets and small asteroids?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Mercu..25f..12H

 

1996, Nov 12

Founding of Spaceguard UK, set up to promote UK NEO activities. The UK Spaceguard Centre is located at Knighton (Powys, Wales, UK).

See:

http://www.spaceguarduk.com/  http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/reports/ac105/AC105_863Add1E.pdf

 

1996, Nov 22

Honduras bolide. Fireball over San Luis (Honduras). Estimated initial diameter D ≈ 2 m. No meteorites were recovered.

Ref:

- NN, 1997, Sky & Telescope, 93, 12, "A hit in Honduras?";

- J. Borovička, C.M. Pineda de Carías, A. Ocampo, et al., 1999, in: W.J. Baggaley & V. Porubcan (eds.), Meteoroids 1998, Proc. Int. Conf., Tatranska Lomnica (Slovakia), 17-21 August 1998 (Slovak Academy of Sciences: Astronomical Institute), "About a big fireball seen in Honduras."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999md98.conf..139B  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=69

 

1996, Nov 30

Asteroid 4179 Toutatis (1989 AC, H = 15.3 mag, D = 4.6×2.4×1.9 km, orbital P = 4.03 yr, PHA) passed Earth at 13.79 LD. It is the largest known PHA.

See: 1989 AC - JPL , 4179 Toutatis - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4179_Toutatis

8 Dec 1992, 31 Oct 2000, 29 Sep 2004, 9 Nov 2008, 12 Dec 2012, 5 Nov 2069.

 

1996, Dec

P.A. Bland, T.B. Smith, A.J.T. Jull, et al., 1996, Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society, 283, 551, "The flux of meteorites to the Earth over the last 50 000 years."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996MNRAS.283..551B

 

1996, Dec

A. Tollman, 1996, Astronomie + Raumfahrt in Unterricht, 33 (6), 12, "Ein Komet – Ursache der Sintflut."

See: http://www.fachportal-paedagogik.de/fis_bildung/suche/fis_set.html?FId=405749  

 

1997

The survey project Lincoln NEA Research (LINEAR), a MIT Lincoln Laboratory program funded by the US Air Force and NASA, began operations with robotic telescopes and fast read-out CCD. Two LINEAR 1-m telescopes (White Sands Missile Range, Socorro, NM, USA) observe the sky five times per night. A third telescope is used for confirmation of NEO orbits, down to v = 20 mag. As of 31 December 2007, LINEAR had detected 2019 NEAs and 236 comets.

Ref:

- G.H. Stokes, J.B. Evans, H.E.M. Viggh, et al., 2000, Icarus, 148, 21, "Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR)."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Icar..148...21S  

- D.K. Yeomans, S.R. Chesley, P.W. Chodas, 2010, in: A.M. Finkelstein, W.F. Huebner & V.A. Shor (eds.), Proc. Intern. Conf. Asteroid-Comet Hazard 2009, Protecting the Earth against collisions with asteroids and comet nuclei, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation), 21-25 September 2009 (Saint Petersburg: Nauka), p. 244, "NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office."

See also:

http://www.ll.mit.edu/mission/space/linear/  http://ftp://quasar.ipa.nw.ru/pub/ACHBOOK_2009/ach-2009_book.pdf  

 

1997

Spanish Meteor and Fireball Network. Operations started in 2004 using high-resolution all-sky CCD camera's and video systems at stations (25 by 2010) located around the Mediterranean coast. Ref:

- J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez, A.J. Castro-Tirado, J. Llorca, et al., 2004, Earth, Moon, and Planets, 95, 553, "The development of the Spanish Fireball Network using a new all-sky CCD system." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EM%26P...95..553T  

- J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez, J. Llorca, A.J. Castro-Tirado, et al., 2006, Astronomy & Geophysics, 47, 6.26, "The Spanish fireball network."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006A%26G....47f..26T  http://www.spmn.uji.es/ENG/presentation.html  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2006.47626.x/pdf

 

1997

W. Alvarez, 1997, T. rex and the Crater of Doom (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press).

See:

http://press.princeton.edu/titles/6029.html  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997S%26T....94f..78A

 

1997

A. Boattini, A. Carusi, 1997, Vistas in Astronomy, 41, 527, "Atens: importance among Near-Earth Asteroids and search strategies."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997VA.....41..527B

 

1997

M.B. Gerrard, A.W. Barber, 1997, New York University Environmental Law Journal, 6, 1, "Asteroids and comets: U.S. and international law and the lowest-probability, highest consequence risk."

See: http://www1.law.nyu.edu/journals/envtllaw/issues/vol6/1/6nyuelj4.html

 

1997

J.S. Lewis, 1997, Rain of iron and ice: the very real threat of comet and asteroid bombardment (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.).

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997S%26T....93a..64L

 

1997

D. Morrison, 1997, in: Y. Terzian & E. Bilson (eds.), Carl Sagan's Universe (Cambridge: CUP), p. 75, "Impacts and life: living in a risky planetary system."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997csu..book...75M

 

1997, Jan

J.G. Hills, M.P. Goda, 1997, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 32, A60, "The largest mass of nickel-iron meteorites."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997M%26PSA..32R..60H

 

1997, Jan

D.I. Steel, 1997, Irish Astronomical Journal, 1997, 24(1), 19, "Project Spaceguard: will humankind go the way of the dinosaurs?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IrAJ...24...19S

 

1997, Feb

O. Hernius, C.-I. Lagerkvist, M. Lindgren, G. Tancredi, G.V. Williams, 1997, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 318, 631, "UESAC - the Uppsala-ESO survey of asteroids and comets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26A...318..631H

 

1997, Feb

O.B. Toon, K. Zahnle, D. Morrison, et al., 1997, Reviews of Geophysics, 35, 41, "Environmental perturbations caused by the impacts of asteroids and comets."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997RvGeo..35...41T  http://www.agu.org/journals/ABS/1997/96RG03038.shtml

 

1997, Feb 15

Juancheng Superbolide, a fireball occurring over Shandong Province (China). The fireball was observed by IR detectors in Earth orbit. The meteoroid was thoroughly fragmented, yielding >1000 individual pieces of more than 100 kg in total. Initial meteoroid mass 4000 - 9000 kg, and 130 - 170 cm in diameter. Ref:

- J.F. Wacker, A.R. Hildebrand, P. Brown, D. Crawford, M.B.E. Boslough, et al., 1998, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33, A160, "The Juancheng and El Paso superbolides of February 15 and October 9, 1997: pre-atmospheric meteoroid sizes."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998M%26PSA..33..160W

 

1997, Apr

W.F. Bottke, D.C. Richardson, S.G. Love, 1997, Icarus, 126, 470, "Can tidal disruption of asteroids make crater chains on the Earth and Moon?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..126..470B

 

1997, Apr 24

J.S. Lewis, 1997, Rain of iron and ice: the very real threat of comet and asteroid bombardment (Helix Books).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_S._Lewis

 

1997, May

J.G. Hills, M.P. Goda, 1997, Planetary and Space Science, 45, 595, "Meteoroids captured into Earth orbit by grazing atmospheric encounters."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997P%26SS...45..595H

 

1997, May

Near-Earth Objects: the United Nations International Conference, New York (NY, USA), 24-26 April 1995.

Proceedings: (see May 1997)

J.L. Remo (ed.), 1997, Proc. Near-Earth Objects: the United Nations International Conference, New York (NY, USA), 24-26 April 1995, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 822.

See: http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/neo.html

Among the papers:

- E.F Helin, S.H. Pravdo, D.L. Rabinowitz, K.J. Lawrence, 1997,  p.6, "Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) Program."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822....6H

- G. Hahn, S. Mottola, A. Erikson, 1997, p.27, "Meteoroid orbits: implications for Near-Earth Object search programs."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822...27S

- D. Steel, 1997, p.31, "Meteoroid orbits: implications for Near-Earth Object search programs."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822...31S

- B.G. Marsden, 1997, p.52, "Overview of orbits."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822...52M

- Z. Ceplecha, C. Jacobs, C. Zaffery, 1997, p.145, "Correlation of ground- and space-based bolides."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822..145C

- R.A.F. Grieve, 1997, p.319, "Target Earth: evidence for large-scale impact events."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822..319G

- J.G. Hills, C.L. Mader, 1997, p.381, "Tsunami produced by the impacts of small asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822..381H

- O.B. Toon, K. Zahnle, D. Morrison, et al., 1997, p.401, "Environmental perturbations caused by the impacts of asteroids and comets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822..401T

- G.H. Canavan, 1997, p.539, "Optimal detection of Near-Earth Object threats."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822..539C

- R.P. Binzel, 1997, p.545, "A Near-Earth Object hazard index."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822..545B

- T. Gehrels, 1997, p. 603, "A proposal to the United Nations regarding the international discovery programs of Near-Earth Asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822..603G

- A. Carusi, 1997, p.606, "International efforts toward the Spaceguard System."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997NYASA.822..606C

 

1997, May

P. Spurný, 1997, Planetary and Space Science, 45, 541, "Exceptional fireballs photographed in central Europe during the period 1993-1996."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997P%26SS...45..541S

 

1997, May / June

D. Morrison, 1997, Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 21.3, "Is the sky falling?"

See: http://www.csicop.org/si/show/is_the_sky_falling

 

1997, Jun

E. Pierazzo, A.M. Vickery, H.J. Melosh, 1997, Icarus, 127, 408, "A re-evaluation of impact melt production."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..127..408P

 

1997, Jun 7

Inauguration of the 1.8 m Spacewatch Telescope on Kitt Peak (AZ, USA).

See: http://spacewatch.lpl.arizona.edu/

 

1997, Jun 27

NASA spacecraft Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR – Shoemaker) flew within 1200 km by main-belt asteroid 253 Mathilde (1949 OL1, H = 10.4 mag, D = 66 × 48 × 46 km).

See:

1949 OL1 - JPL , 253 Mathilde - SSA

See also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/253_Mathilde

Ref:

- A.F. Cheng, 1997, Space Science reviews, 82, 3, "Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous: mission overview."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SSRv...82....3C

- A.F. Cheng, A.G. Santo, K.J. Heeres, et al., 1997, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, E10, p. 23695, "Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous: mission overview."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10223695C  

- D.K. Yeomans, J.-P. Barriot, D.W. Dunham, et al., 1997, Science, 278, 2106, "Estimating the mass of asteroid 253 Mathilde from tracking data during the NEAR flyby."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Sci...278.2106Y   

- E. Asphaug, 2004, in:  M.J.S. Belton, et al. (eds.), Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids (Cambridge: CUP), p. 66, "Interior structures for asteroids and cometary nuclei".

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004mhca.conf...66A

See also:

http://near.jhuapl.edu/media/NEAR_fact_sheet.pdf  http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/profile.cfm?MCode=NEAR  http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/474202main_Cheng_ExploreNOW.pdf  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=near-ing-mathilde

 

1997, Jul

Z. Ceplecha, R.E. McCrosky, 1997, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 32, A157, "Prairie Network fireballs: data on height, distance and brightness for each measured time-mark."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997M%26PSA..32..157C

 

1997, Jul

R. Bottomley, R. Grieve, D. York, V. Masaitis, 1997, Nature, 388, 365, "The age of the Popigai impact event and its relation to events at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Natur.388..365B

 

1997, Jul

D.A. Kring, 1997, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 32, 517, "Air blast produced by the Meteor Crater impact event and a reconstruction of the affected environment."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997M%26PS...32..517K

 

1997, Jul 11

B.J. Gladman, F. Migliorini, A. Morbidelli, V. Zappala, P. Michelle, et al., 1997, Science, 277, 197, "Dynamical lifetimes of objects injected into asteroid belt resonances."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Sci...277..197G

 

1997, Aug

B.G. Marsden, 1997, Planetary and Space Science, 45, 1049, "Obituary – Eugene M. Shoemaker (1928 – 1997)."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997P%26SS...45.1049M

 

1997, Sep

J.S. Lewis, 1997, Mining the sky: untold riches from the asteroids, comets, and planets (New York: Perseus Publishing).

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_S._Lewis

 

1997, Sep

V. Zappalà, A. Cellino, M. di Martino, et al., 1997, Icarus, 129, 1, "Maria's family: physical structure and possible implications for the origin of giant NEAs."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..129....1Z

 

1997, Oct

H.J. Melosh, E.V. Ryan, 1997, Icarus, 129, 562, "Asteroids: shattered but not dispersed."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..129..562M

 

1997, Oct 9

El Paso superbolide. A large fireball seen at daylight from Chihuahua (Mexico) moving north to detonate east of El Paso (TX, USA). Recorded by satellite systems, seismographs, infrasound arrays and numerous video and still photographers. The terminal disaggregation energy released corresponds to a body of ~2 m and total mass of M ≈ 15,000 kg.

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=80  

Ref:

- J.F. Wacker, A.R. Hildebrand, P. Brown, D. Crawford, M.B.E. Boslough, et al., 1998, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33, A160, "The Juancheng and El Paso superbolides of February 15 and October 9, 1997: pre-atmospheric meteoroid sizes."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998M%26PSA..33..160W

 

1997, Oct 20

US Department of Defense Clementine II mission to test technologies for interception of asteroids has fallen victim to a line-item veto: US President Clinton deleted $30M in funding for Clementine II from the FY1998 budget. Clementine II was supposed to fly by asteroids 4179 Toutatis and 1986 JK in the year 2000 and possibly to deliver impact probes.

See: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=74   

 

1997, Nov 27

J. Smit, 1997, Nature, 390, 340, "Extraterrestrial impacts: the big splash". Comments on Gersonde et al. (1997), see below.

See: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v390/n6658/full/390340b0.html   http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v449/n7158/full/449001b.html  

 

1997, Nov 27

R. Gersonde, F.T. Kyte, U. Bleil, 1997, Nature, 390, 357, "Geological record and reconstruction of the late Pliocene impact of the Eltanin asteroid in the Southern Ocean."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Natur.390..357G

 

1997, Dec

C. de Jager, 2012, Zenit, 24, 520, "De dood van de dinosauriërs." See: http://www.dekoepel.nl/zenit/dooddinos.html

 

1997, Dec

P. Pravec, M. Wolf, L. Sarounova, et al., 1997, Icarus, 130, 275, "The Near-Earth Objects follow-up program. II. Results for 8 asteroids from 1982 to 1996"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..130..275P

 

1997, Dec

D.L. Rabinowitz, 1997, Icarus, 127, 33, "Are main-belt asteroids a sufficient source for the Earth-approaching asteroids?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..127...33R

 

1997, Dec

D.L. Rabinowitz, 1997, Icarus, 130, 287, "Are main-belt asteroids a sufficient source for the Earth-approaching asteroids?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..130..287R

 

1997, Dec

D.I. Steel, 1997, Planetary and Space Science, 45, 1501, "The ABC of ACM: asteroids, Buffon and comets."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997P%26SS...45.1501S

 

1997, Dec 9

Greenland Fireball and Airburst / Superbolide. Fireball seen at night 150 km south of Nuuk (Greenland), by ground- and satellite-based cameras. Estimated initial NEA mass M ≈ 36,000 kg. No meteorites were recovered.

See:

http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=80  

http://goes.gsfc.nasa.gov/text/9712.greenland/9712.greenland.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_meteor_air_bursts

Ref:

- H. Pedersen, R.E. Spalding, E. Tagliaferri, et al., 2001, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36, 549, "Greenland superbolide event of 1997 December 9."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001M%26PS...36..549P  

 

1997, Dec 19

E. Asphaug, 1997, Science, 278, 2070, "New views of asteroids." See:

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/278/5346/2070.short   http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Sci...278.2070A

 

1998

First asteroid discovered by Lowell Observatory NEO Search (LONEOS), initiated by E.L.G. Bowell. The 0.6m telescope project, funded by NASA, was terminated at the end of February 2008. LONEOS discovered 288 NEOs.

See:

http://www2.lowell.edu/users/elgb/loneos_disc.html

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/programs/loneos.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowell_Observatory_Near-Earth-Object_Search

 

1998

T. Gehrels, 1998, Meteorite, 4, 18, "Detection of asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Met.....4Q..18G

 

1998

T. Gehrels, 1998, Meteorite, 4, 18, "Detection of asteroids, Part 2." See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Met.....4R..18G

 

1998

J.G. Hills, M.P. Goda, 1998, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 16, 3, "Tsunami from asteroid and comet impacts: the vulnerability of Europe."

See: http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/00394718.pdf

 

1998

C.L. Mader, 1998, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 16, 11, "Asteroid tsunami inundation of Japan."

See: http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/00394718.pdf

 

1998

C.L. Mader, 1998, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 16, 17, "Modeling the Eltanin asteroid tsunami."

See:  http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/00394718.pdf

 

1998

D.A. Crawford, C.L. Mader, 1998, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 16, 21, "Modeling asteroid impact and tsunami."

See: http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/00394718.pdf

 

1998, Jan

J. Oberst, S. Molau, D. Heinlein, et al., 1998, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33, 49, "The 'European Fireball Network': current status and future prospects."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998M%26PS...33...49O

 

1998, Jan

D.F. Lupishko, M. di Martino, 1998, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 47, "Physical properties of near-Earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46...47L

 

1998, Jan

D.P. Rubincam, 1998, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, E1, 1725, "Yarkovsky thermal drag on small asteroids and Mars-Earth delivery."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...103.1725R

 

1998, Feb

J.G. Hills, M.P. Goda, 1998, in: Proc. Intern. Workshop Tunguska 96, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 219, "Damage from the impacts of small asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46..219H

 

1998, Feb

A.W. Harris, 1998, Icarus, 131, 291, "A thermal model for Near-Earth Asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Icar..131..291H

 

1998, Feb

A.W. Harris, 1998, in: Proc. Intern. Workshop Tunguska 96, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 283, "Evaluation of ground-based optical surveys for near-Earth asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46..283H

 

1998, Feb

A. Montanari, A. Campo Bagatin, P. Farinella, 1998, in: Proceedings International Workshop Tunguska 96, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 271, "Earth cratering record and impact energy flux in the last 150 Ma."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46..271M  

 

1998, Feb

K. Muinonen, 1998, in: Proceedings International Workshop Tunguska 96, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 291, "Discovery and follow-up simulations for small Earth-crossing asteroids."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46..291M

 

1998, Feb-Mar

N.V. Vasilyev, 1998, Planetary and Space Science, 46, 129, "The Tunguska Meteorite problem today."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998P%26SS...46..129V

 

1998, Feb 14

Asteroid 1998 DK36 (H = 25.0 mag, D ≈ 42 m) passed Earth at a nominal miss distance of 4.41 LD. Minimum miss distance 0.19 LD.

See: 1998 DK36 - JPL , 1998 DK36 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998_DK36

 

1998, Mar 11

B.G. Marsden, 1998, IAU Circular 6837, "1997 XF11."

See:

http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/iauc/06800/06837.html#Item2  http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/iau/pressinfo/1997XF11.html

IAU Circular 6837 contained the (later corrected) assertion of a possible impact on Earth by asteroid 35396 (1997 XF11, H = 16.8 mag, D ≈ 1860 m, PHA) on 26 Oct 2028. The ensuing debate on orbit determination, evaluation of impact risks and the dissemination of such results led to considerable activity. Improved analyses predicted an approach distance of 2.42 LD on 26 October 2028.

See:

1997 XF11 - JPL , 35396 1997 XF11 - SSA

See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(35396)_1997_XF1

http://www.ibtimes.co.in/would-asteroid-discovered-1997-hit-earth-search-answers-led-much-more-732947

Ref:

- B.G. Marsden, 1998, Boston Sunday Globe, 29 March 1989, "How the asteroid story hit: an astronomer reveals how a discovery spun out of control."

See: http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/iau/pressinfo/1997XF11Globe.html

- I. Semeniuk, 1998, Mercury, 27, No. 6, p. 12, "Armageddon? … Sorry, just Armakiddin!"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Mercu..27f..12S  

- B.G. Marsden, 1999, AAS-DAA meeting #31, #07.02, "Asteroid 1997 XF11 could collide with earth."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999DDA....31.0702M  

- B.G. Marsden, 1999, Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 109, 39, "1997 XF11 - the true story."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JBAA..109...39M

- B.G. Marsden, 1999, Journal British Interplanetary Society, 52 (5 - 6), 195, "A discourse on 1997 XF11."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JBIS...52..195M  

- D. Morrison, C.R. Chapman, D. Steel, R.P. Binzel, 2004, in: M.J.S. Belton, et al. (eds.), 2004, Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids (Cambridge: CUP), p. 353, "Impacts and the public: communicating the nature of impact hazard."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004mhca.conf..353M

- B.G. Marsden, 2007, in: P. Bobrowsky & H. Rickman (eds.), 2007, Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society (Berlin: Springer), p. 505, "Impact risk communication management (1998 – 2004): Has it improved?"

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007caih.book.....B   

See also:

http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/iauc/06800/06837.html#Item2  http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=60

http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/news_detail.cfm?ID=63  http://sciencenow.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1998/311/1  http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/13/us/man-in-the-news-a-cheery-herald-of-fear-brian-geoffrey-marsden.html  http://discovermagazine.com/2000/oct/featblunders/

See also: 26 Oct 2028, 27 Oct 2095.

 

1998, Mar 12

J.G. Spray, S.P. Kelley, D.B. Rowley, 1998, Nature, 392, 171, "Evidence for a late Triassic multiple impact event on Earth."

See:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Natur.392..171S  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v392/n6672/abs/392171a0.html

On the Manicouagan Crater, one of the oldest known impact craters, located in the Côte-Nord region of Québec, Canada, about 300 km north of the city of Baie-Comeau.

See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manicouagan_crater

 

1998, Mar 29

B.G. Marsden, 1998, Boston Sunday Globe, 29 March 1989, "How the asteroid story hit: an astronomer reveals how a discovery spun out of control."

See: http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/iau/pressinfo/1997XF11Globe.html

 

1998, Apr

The Catalina Sky Survey came into operation, starting from the ashes of an old photographic project started by Spahr & Hergenrother (1993). The CSS consists of a consortium of three cooperating surveys, all funded by NASA: the original Catalina Sky Survey (CSS, 0.7-m telescope) in Arizona, the Siding Spring Survey (SSS, 0.5-m telescope) in Australia, and the Mt. Lemmon Survey (MLSS, 1.5-m telescope) in Arizona. As of 2009, CSS had discovered more than 2,142 NEOs down to v = 22 mag.

Ref:

- T.B. Spahr, C. Hergenrother, S.M. Larson, 1993, Bulletin American Astronomical Society, 25, 1059, "High ecliptic latitude asteroid and comet search."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993DPS....25.1013S   

- D.K. Yeomans, S.R. Chesley, P.W. Chodas, 2010, in: A.M. Finkelstein, W.F. Huebner & V.A. Shor (eds.), Proc. Intern. Conf. Asteroid-Comet Hazard 2009, Protecting the Earth against collisions with asteroids and comet nuclei, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation), 21-25 September 2009 (Saint Petersburg: Nauka), p. 244, "NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office."

- A.J. Drake, S.G. Djorgovski, A. Mahabal, et al., April 2012, in: R.E. Griffin, R.J. Hanisch, R.L. Seaman (eds.), New horizons in time-domain astronomy, Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 285 (Cambridge: CUP), 306, "The Catalina Real-time Transient Survey."

See: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IAUS..285..306D

See also:

http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/css/  

http://uanews.org/node/23277  http://ftp://quasar.ipa.nw.ru/pub/ACHBOOK_2009/ach-2009_book.pdf   

http://www.space.com/14911-dangerous-asteroids-search-nasa-funding.html  

http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/~rmn/  http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21528724.800-vital-eye-for-killer-asteroids-could-shut-imminently.html  http://www.canberratimes.com.au/national/funding-black-hole-means-our-asteroid-sentinel-may-abandon-crucial-work-20120710-21ubf.html